Jibreel (Angel Gabriel)
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According to Islamic scriptures, Jibreel (جبريل Gabriel) is the angel who first appeared to Muhammad in the cave of Hijra and taught Muhammad the Qur'an. According to Islamic sources, Jibreel brought the revelations to all of the prophets from Adam to Muhammad. He is referred to as طاوؤس الملائكة "Peacock of the Angels" and, again according to Islamic sources, intervened at several points in the military career of the prophet such as at the Battle of Badr and The Massacre of the Banu Qurayza. He is mentioned by name in three places in the Qur'an and many times in the sira and hadith literature. In addition to being the bearer of revelations to the prophets and the warrior angel guiding and protecting Muhammad, he is also associated with the Holy Spirit to such a degree that most Islamic commentators take him to be synonymous with the Holy Spirit, even though the term was only used in Christian and Jewish literature to refer to god himself.
Jibreel in the Qur'an
Jibreel is named three times in the Qur'an, 2:97-98 and 66:4
مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلَّهِ وَمَلَٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَىٰلَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَٰفِرِينَSay, "Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel - it is [none but] he who has brought the Qur'an down upon your heart, [O Muhammad], by permission of Allah, confirming that which was before it and as guidance and good tidings for the believers." Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and His messengers and Gabriel and Michael - then indeed, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.
If you two [wives] repent to Allah, [it is best], for your hearts have deviated. But if you cooperate against him - then indeed Allah is his protector, and Gabriel and the righteous of the believers and the angels, moreover, are [his] assistants.
The Qur'anic verses 21:91 and 66:12 in conjunction with the tafsir's, tell us he was sent to breathe Allah's spirit into Maryam's (Mary's) vagina in order to impregnate her with 'Isa (Jesus). It is partially on the basis of this description that Gabriel is identified with the Holy Spirit.
(And Maryam, the daughter of `Imran who guarded her chastity (private part).) meaning, who protected and purified her honor, by being chaste and free of immorality,
[فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِنَا](And We breathed into it (private part) through Our Ruh,) meaning, through the angel Jibril. Allah sent the angel Jibril to Maryam, and he came to her in the shape of a man in every respect. Allah commanded him to blow into a gap of her garment and that breath went into her womb through her private part; this is how `Isa was conceived.
Jibreel in the Hadith
Gabriel sometimes came to Muhammad in the form of a man.
One day while the Prophet was sitting in the company of some people, (The angel) Gabriel came......Then that man (Gabriel) left and the Prophet asked his companions to call him back, but they could not see him. Then the Prophet said, "That was Gabriel who came to teach the people their religion."...
Sometimes he would appear with six hundred wings.
During the first revelation, Gabriel was rather forceful with Muhammad and succeeded in terrifying him:
The Prophet added, "The angel caught me (forcefully) and pressed me so hard that I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read and I replied, 'I do not know how to read.' Thereupon he caught me again and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. He then released me and again asked me to read but again I replied, 'I do not know how to read (or what shall I read)?' Thereupon he caught me for the third time and pressed me, and then released me and said, 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3)Then Allah's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely. Then he went to Khadija bint Khuwailid and said, "Cover me! Cover me!" They covered him till his fear was over and after that he told her everything that had happened and said, "I fear that something may happen to me."
Gabriel is the medium through which Allah communicated with Muhammad.
Gabriel taught Muhammad how to pray.
Gabriel opened Muhammad's chest and washed his innards with Zam-Zam water, and then he took Muhammad to heaven.
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