Islámská velryba

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Islámská velryba (v arabštině الحوت الإسلامية, al-hút al-islamíja), je obří velryba, zmíněná v prominentních islámských textech, která údajně nese Zemi na svých zádech. Také je zvaná Nún (نون), což je zároveň název arabského písmene ن. Další dvě alternativní jména této velryby jsou Liwash a Lutiaya.[1] Tento článek analyzuje tuto hypotézu islámské velryby.

Nún v Koránu

Nún je zmíněna ve verši 68:1. Nejuznávanější učenci islámu (Ibn Kathir, At-Tabari, Al-Qurtubi a další) se shodují, že Nún je velryba, která nese Zemi na svých zádech:

نٓ وَٱلْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ
Nún při peru a tom co píší

Překlad slovo po slovu:

  • نٓ - Nún - jméno velryby
  • وَٱلْقَلَمِ - ua-al-qalam - při peru (ua- prefix znamená "a" nebo "při")
  • وَمَا - ua-má - a co
  • يَسْطُرُونَ - yastarúna - píší

V Koránu není mnoho informací, ale jak uvidíme, pochopení existence islámské velryby je potřebné k pochopení jiných veršů v Koránu. Například o tom, že hory jsou jako kolíky:

78:6 Což jsme Zemi nerozprostřeli?
78:7 A neudělali hory jako kolíky?

Pan Hrbek přeložil jako "podpěry" namísto "kolíky", ale v mnoha jiných, anglických překladech, se vyskytuje "pegs" [2].

Dále existuje verš, kde je Jonáš zvaný "mužem Nún", protože byl spolknut velrybou [3]:

A zmiň se o muži ryby (ٱلنُّونِ, al-nún)..."

Nún znamená velryba (الحوت, al-hút), podle tafsíru Al-Jalalayn.[4]

Tafsír Ibn Kathir

První budeme citovat celý komentář k verši 68:1 z anglické zkrácené verze tafsíru Ibn Kathir:


Ibn Kathir, English abridged version, o verši 68:1

Nic tam není, protože překladač se rozhodl nepřeložit, co o tomto verši bylo napsáno, přestože v arabském originále se o něm Ibn Kathir hodně rozepsal.

Toto je definice ن (Nún) v arabském tafsíru:

نۤ حوت عظيم
  • نۤ - nún - Nún
  • حوت - hút - velryba
  • عظيم - 'azím - obří

Nún je obří velryba.


Ibn Kathir, komentář k verši 68:1 [5]


Hadís od Ibn Abbase, zvaného turjuman ul-Qur'an

Tafsír Ibn Kathir cituje Tabarího, který cituje Ibn Abbase, který nám dal nějaké detaily ohledně stvoření této velryby:

ابن عباس قال: أول ما خلق الله القلم قال: اكتب، قال: وماذا أكتب؟ قال: اكتب القدر، فجرى بما يكون من ذلك اليوم إلى قيام الساعة، ثم خلق النون، ورفع بخار الماء، ففتقت منه السماء، وبسطت الأرض على ظهر النون، فاضطرب النون، فمادت الأرض، فأثبتت بالجبال؛

Ibn Abbas (ابن عباس) řekl: První věc Aláh stvořil (خلق) bylo pero (القلم). Přikázal mu aby psalo. Řeklo: Co mám psát? Řekl: Napiš osud (القدر). A tak napsalo co se má stát od toho dne (اليوم) až do dne zmrtvýchvstání, poté stvořil Nún (النون, al-nún), poté zvedl vodu a vytvořil z ní nebesa a položil Zemi (الأرض) na (على) záda (ظهر) Nún, Nún se pohybovala a s ní i Země, takže byla [Země k Nún] připevněna horami (بالجبال).


Ibn Kathir, komentář k verši 68:1 [6]

Další varianta hadísu:

عن ابنِ عباسٍ قال أولُ شيءٍ خلق اللهُ تعالى القلمُ فقال له اكتب فكتب ما هو كائنٌ إلى أن تقومَ الساعةُ ثم خلق النون فوق الماءِ ثم كبس الأرضَ عليه

Od Ibn Abbáse (ابنِ عباسٍ), který řekl: První věc, kterou Aláh (اللهُ) stovřil, bylo pero (القلمُ) a řekl mu: "Piš!" (اكتب) A ono napsalo co se stane až do Dne soudného, poté stvořil Nún (النون) nad (فوق) vodou (الماءِ), poté zatlačil (كبس) Zemi (الأرضَ) na ni(عليه).


تاريخ الطبري (Tarikh At-Tabari) [7]

Hadís (vyprávění) od Ibn Abbase je považován za صحيح (sahih)[7], což znamená autentické vyprávění. Všichni muslimové by měli věřit v sahíh hadísy. A měli by obzvláště věřit na hadísy, ve kterých Ibn Abbás vysvětluje verše z Koránu, protože Mohamed vyslovil prosbu (du'á) pro Ibn Abbase, aby jej Aláh naučil interpretaci Koránu. Ibn Abbas jaké také zvaný turjuman ul-Qur'an (ترجمان القرآن), protože měl hluboké znalosti o interpretaci (tarjama) zjevení.

Vyprávěl Ibn ‘Abbas (raa): Prorok mě objal a řekl: “Ó Aláhu! Nauč jej (znalost) Knihy (Korán).”

Jeho vyprávění zároveň vysvětluje, proč jsou hory popisovány jako kolíky v Koránu. Je to proto, že by se Země na hřbetu velryby pohybovala, kdyby nebyly kolíky, které by ji držely. [8]:

78:6 Což jsme Zemi nerozprostřeli?
78:7 A neudělali hory jako kolíky?


Zároveň to vysvětluje, proč je Aláhův trůn "na vodě" (protože ALáh stvořil nebesa z vody):

A On je ten, jenž nebesa a zemi v šesti dnech stvořil, zatímco trůn Jeho byl nad vodou

Pan Hrbek přidal slovo "vznášel se", ale to není v arabském originále [9].

Tafsír At-Tabari

Nejvíce uznávaný sunnitský tafsír je pravděpodobně od Tabarího. Bohužel, nebyl dosud přeložen do angličtiny. Zde je jeho interpretace Nún ve verši 68:1.

هو الحوت الذي عليه الأرَضُون

Je to (هو) velryba (الحوت), která (الذي) na ní (عليه) Země (الأرَضُون).


At-Tabari, komentář k verši 68:1 [10]

Slovo "Země" je tam v množném čísle. Podle islámu existuje sedm placatých Zemí, stejně tak jako je sedm nebí:

Bůh je ten, jenž stvořil sedm nebes a podobný počet zemí.

Jsou naskládány na sebe jako palačinky.

ِTafsír Al-Qurtubi

Další velmi respektovaný tafsír od Al-Qurtubího, má stejný názor. Velryba je pod sedmou (nejnižší) Zemí:

نۤ> الحوت الذي تحت الأرض السابعة>
<Nún> - velryba (الحوت), která je (الذي) pod (تحت) Zemí (الأرض) sedmou (السابعة).


Tafsir Al-Qurtubi on 68:1 [11]

Pokud by Al-Qurtubí věděl, že je Země kulatá a považoval by ty "Země", že jsou to vrstvy Země a velryba je uvnitř zeměkoule, použil by slovo "uvnitř" a ne "pod". A velryba uvnitř zeměkoule je nesmysl tak jako tak, tedy Al-Qurtubi evidentně považoval Zemi za placatou.

ِTafsir Al-Kabir (od Ar-Razi)

بالحوت الذي على ظهره الأرض وهو في بحر تحت الأرض السفلى

..s velrybou (بالحوت) která je na jejích zádech (ظهره) Země (الأرض) a ona je v moři (بحر) pod (تحت) Zemí (الأرض) nejnižší (السفلى).


Tafsir Al-Kabir on 68:1[12]

Opět, vidíme, že existuje několik plochých Zemí, pod nimi je velryba a pod rybou je moře (oceán). Ta velryba plave v moři se Zeměmi připevněnými na svých zádech.

ِTafsir Fath Al-Qadir (od Shawkani)

Tento tafsír je z 18. století:

هو الحوت الذي يحمل الأرض

Je to velryba, která nese Zemi.


Fath Al-Qadir, komentář k verši 68:1[13]

Hadith Al-Kafi (šítský)

We can also read about the Islamic whale from the Shia hadiths. This narration explains the connection between the whale and earthquakes:

H 14813 – From him, from Salih, from one of his companions, from Abdul Samad Bin Basheer, who has reported the following: Abu Abdullah (asws) has said that: ‘The whale which is carrying the earth secretly said to itself that it is carrying the earth by its own strength. So Allah (azwj) the High Sent to it a fish smaller than a palm’s length, and larger than a finger. So it entered in its gills and shocked it. It remained like that for forty days. Then Allah (azwj) Raised it and was Merciful to it, and Took it out. So whenever Allah (azwj) Intends the earth to be in a quake, He (azwj) Sends that (small) fish to that (big) fish. So when it sees it, it becomes restless, so the earth gets engulfed by the earthquake’.
Al-Kafi, vol. 8, part 6, [14]

Tafsír Al-Tusi (šítský)

The first comprehensive Shia tafsir[15] says this about the Nun:

وقال ابن عباس - فى رواية عنه - إن النون الحوت الذى عليه الارضون

And said Ibn Abbas (ابن عباس) - in his narration - that Nun (النون) is a whale (الحوت) which on it are the Earths (الارضون).
Al-Tibbyan by Al-Tusi on 68:1 [16]

As we see, Ibn Abbas and his narration is deeply respected by both sunni and shia Muslims.

Důkazy

There is no scientific evidence suggesting that there is a big whale carrying the Earth on its back. We know today because of overwhelming evidence that the earth is round, or specifically oblate spheroid (there are no seven flat earths stacked one below the other). We also know that the earth is floating in space and is held in its orbit because of the gravitational force of the sun. There are no gigantic animals holding the earth as the tafsirs and hadith claim.

Also, mountains are not like pegs. For example volcanic mountains could be considered the opposite of pegs, because they have a flowing lava in the middle. The flowing lava with its high temperature cannot attach the Earth to a big whale.

Další interpretace nún

Although the turjuman ul-Qur'an Ibn Abbas explained that Nun is the whale which carries the Earth(s) on its back, there are also non-whale interpretations of Nun.

"ن je písmeno abecedy"

ن ("n") is a letter of the Arabic alphabet called نون (Nun).

  • This doesn't explain the verse at all. If anything, it would mean that Allah puts random letters into his revelation for mankind, for no reason.
  • Muhammad was illiterate and he did not write the revelations. He recited them. "Qur'an" means recitation. Maybe it was not just the letter ن ("n"), but the whole name نون ("nun"). It's just a matter of writing it. So maybe it was not meant to be a letter of the alphabet at all. Maybe it was the three-letter word N-u-n.
  • The verse 68:1 "نٓ وَٱلْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ" could be translated as "Nun and the pen and what they write", since و usually means "and". It seems that Allah is enumerating 3 things (and enumeration usually donesn't mix things and letters):
    • Nun (ن or نون)
    • and (و) the pen (ٱلْقَلَمِ)
    • and (و) what (مَا)
    • they write (يَسْطُرُونَ)

"N" v "Ar-Rahmaan"

The word الرحمن, Ar-Rahman, "the gracious" is one of the names of Allah. The 13th sura starts with three letters الر, a few suras start with the letters حم. It we put together الر + حم + ن, we get الرحمن.

  • The word Ar-Rahman is nowadays actually written as الرحمان, but in the old Uthmani script it was written without the ا (alif) before the ن. It was added later, to indicate the "aa" vowel.
  • A lot of verses start on other letters and putting them together doesn't produce any interesting word. So choosing just three of them and getting an interesting word could be considered a cherry-picking.

Nun znamená "inkoust"

The verse 68:1 would mean "The ink and the pen and that which they write".

  • The Qur'an used the word مِدَادًا (midaadan) for "ink" in the verse 18:109, while it used the word نون (nun) to mean "whale" in the verse 21:87. So it is more probable, that the meaning of nun here is "whale".
  • According to this interpretation, this refers to the ink with which the Qur'an was written. Which is not very fitting, since the primary form of the Qu'ran is recitation. The word "Qur'an" itself means "recitation".

"Aláh ví nejlíp"

"Allah knows best", in other words "the author knows what he meant", is not an interpretation at all. "Allah knows best" could be said about all Qur'anic verses. In fact, there could be a whole tafsir saying only "Allah knows best" to every verse. But it would be useless, because "Allah knows best" doesn't explain the meaning at all.

Apologetika

Some Muslims, who consider the whale hypothesis to be false [17] are embarrassed that this is a part of their religion and try to put forward arguments to prove that it is in fact not a part of their religion.

Není to v Koránu

This is questionable. Nun is mentioned in the Qur'an 68:1 and it was used in another verse 21:87 to mean "whale". It is not clearly stated in the Qur'an that Nun is the whale which carries the Earth on its back, but the Qur'an speaks about mountains being like pegs, which supports the "whale cosmology". If there is no whale under the Earth, then there is no reason for mountains to function as pegs.

Also when something is not in the Qur'an, then it doesn't mean it's not a part of Islam. The "5 pillars of Islam" are also not described in the Qur'an and they are considered to be a part of Islam. Islam (or at least the mainstream Islam) is derived from the Qur'an, hadith and sira.

Ten hadís je mawqoof

When a hadith (narration) is called mawqoof, it means that it is not a quote originally from Muhammad himself, but it is from someone from the Sahaba (his companions). In this case Ibn Abbas.

There is a fatwa which says that a mawqoof hadith can be used as evidence if nobody protested against it:

As for taking it as evidence, it means that we have to act according to it and consider it a source of evidence of the Islamic religion. Scholars have ten different opinions regarding that issue. The nearest of them to correctness is that if the opinion of the companion spread widely and no one went against it, then it is a source of evidence and a consensus by silence. However, if it did not spread or some other companions went against it, then it is not a source of evidence, but can be used as secondary evidence.
Fatwa 217021 [18]

The whale interpretation spread widely among the scholars and none of them discredited this story in any way.

Tomu věřili pouze raní učenci

As we've seen, the scholar Shawkani, who was born more than a thousand years after Muhammad's death, still wrote about the whale. So it's not just a matter of the early scholars.

  • About a century later after Shawkani wrote about the flat Earth on the back of a giant whale, non-Muslims from Russia managed to escape the round Earth and land on the Moon.

To je od židů

Neither the Torah nor the Talmud talk about a whale, which carries the earth on its back. So this idea is not derived from Judaism. It was also said that Ibn Abbas probably learned it from Ka‘b al-Ahbar, who was an ex-Jew Muslim. A respected sunni scholar Ibn Hajar said this about Ka‘b al-Ahbar:

Ka`b Ibn Mati` al-Himyari, Abu Ishaq, known as Ka`b al-Ahbar, is trustworthy.
Ibn Hajar Asqalani, Taqrib al-Tahdhib, Op Cit., p. 135.

So "It's probably from al-Ahbar" is just an unsuccessful ad-hominem.

Učenci se mohou mýlit

Everyone can be wrong. For example Muhammad could have been wrong when he assumed he is a prophet and Muslims can be wrong by believing in Islam. Since everyone can be wrong and this argument could be used against both sides, it is not a valid argument for any side.

This is also an act of shooting the messenger, an ad hominem fallacy. Muslims have traditionally regarded Islamic scholars as expert authorities on all religious matters. In fact, Islam split into many schools of law (madhhabs) over the centuries because each school considered specific scholars as the sole authorities. If Muslims now want to discredit their own scholars because of such embarrassing claims, they are putting the entire Islamic argument—that Islam is the only true religion, it is perfect and it is from God—on shaky ground. One may wonder, "What is the real history of Islam and what are the correct Islamic laws if the scholars are dismissed by their own followers? Were they all liars or fabricators? And why?"

Aláh se nikdy nemýlí

This doesn't mean that he didn't mean the whale which carries the Earth on its back. Maybe the Earth actually is attached to a big whale's back with mountains and all evidence against it is the work of Shaytan who tries to lead people to disbelief?

Also if the only one to be trusted is Allah, then we cannot trust the Qur'an, because it wasn't passed to us directly from him, but through many generations of fallible humans.

Belief in Islam has the prerequisite of belief in the people who passed its doctrine.

Závěry

  • Nun definitely means "whale", because Jonah (who was eaten by a whale) was called "man of the Nun".
  • The turjuman ul-Qur'an Ibn Abbas, along with the most respected Islamic scholars, both sunni and shia, agree that Nun in the verse 68:1 refers to the whale which carries the Earth on its back.
  • The Earth is supossedly attached to the whale with mountains. The mountains function as pegs.
    • So the Islamic whale also helps to explain the verse 78:7 about mountains being "pegs".
  • The scholars who based their knowledge on reading the Arabic Qur'an and hadiths believed that the Earth is flat and it is attached with mountains (as pegs) to a big whale.

Viz také

Reference

  1. Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs: "Ibn 'Abbas řekl ohledně interpretace Aláhova rčení "Nún": '"Nún" říká: Aláh přísahá při Nún, což je ta velryba, která nese Země na svých zádech, zatímco je ve vodě. A pod ní je býk a pod býkem je skála a pod skálou je prach a nikdo neví co je pod prachem, kromě Aláha. Jméno té velryby je Liwash, a také bylo řečeno, že její jméno je Lutiaya'; jméno býka je Bahamut, a někteří říkají, že jeho jméno je Talhut nebo Liyona." http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2
  2. http://quranx.com/78.7
  3. http://biblehub.com/library/marshall/the_wonder_book_of_bible_stories/the_story_of_jonah_and.htm
  4. Al-Jalalayn o 21:87
    • ذَا ٱلنُّونِ } صاحب الحوت}
    • {Muž ryby} společník velryby (الحوت, al-hút)
    http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=8&tSoraNo=21&tAyahNo=87&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  5. altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=7&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  6. altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=7&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  7. 7.0 7.1 http://hdith.com/?s=%D8%AB%D9%85+%D8%AE%D9%84%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%88%D9%86+%D9%81%D9%88%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%A7%D8%A1%D8%8C+%D8%AB%D9%85+%D9%83%D8%A8%D8%B3+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B1%D8%B6+%D8%B9%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%87
  8. To je také podporováno v tafsíru Al-Jalalayn k verši 78:7 "a hory jako kolíky? se kterými je Země připevněna, tak jako se připevňují stany." http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=1&tTafsirNo=74&tSoraNo=78&tAyahNo=7&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2
  9. https://quran.com/11/7
  10. http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=1&tTafsirNo=1&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  11. http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=1&tTafsirNo=5&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  12. http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=1&tTafsirNo=4&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  13. http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=1&tTafsirNo=9&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  14. Page 45. Kitab al-Kafi. Archived at [1].
  15. http://en.wikishia.net/view/Al-Tibyan_fi_tafsir_al-Qur'an_(book)
  16. http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=4&tTafsirNo=39&tSoraNo=68&tAyahNo=1&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=1
  17. https://islamqa.info/en/114861
  18. http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=217021