Difference between revisions of "Abrogace (Nasch)"

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{{Quote|[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_1_foreword.htm  Join The Caravan, p.20]<BR>Imam Abdullah Azzam|"So, if the fighting stops, the disbelievers will dominate, and fitnah, which is Shirk (polytheism), will spread."}}
 
{{Quote|[http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_1_foreword.htm  Join The Caravan, p.20]<BR>Imam Abdullah Azzam|"So, if the fighting stops, the disbelievers will dominate, and fitnah, which is Shirk (polytheism), will spread."}}
  
===Fight those who fight you, Allah hates aggressors===
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===Bojujte proti těm, kteří bojují proti vám, Aláh nesnáší agresory===
  
 
'''Verse 2:190'''
 
'''Verse 2:190'''
  
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|190}}|Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.}}
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{{Quote|{{Quran|2|190}}| A bojujte na stezce Boží proti těm, kdož bojují proti vám, avšak nečiňte bezpráví, neboť Bůh nemiluje ty, kdož se bezpráví dopouštějí.}}
  
'''Meaning of verse 2:190'''
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'''Význam verše 2:190'''
  
{{Quote|[http://quran.com/2/190 Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2:190]<BR>Tafsir al jalayn (Suyuti)|this stipulation was abrogated by the verse of barā’a, ‘immunity’ [Q. 9:1], or by His saying [below]:}}
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{{Quote|[http://quran.com/2/190 Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2:190]<BR>Tafsir al jalayn (Suyuti)|tato podmínka byla zrušena veršem barā’a, ‘imunita’ [Q. 9:1], nebo jeho rčením (níže):}}
  
{{Quote|1=[http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=2&tid=4985 The Command to fight Those Who fight Muslims and killing Them wherever They are found]<BR>Tafsir Ibn Kathir|2=(And fight in the way of Allah those who fight you,)
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{{Quote|1=[http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=2&tid=4985 The Command to fight Those Who fight Muslims and killing Them wherever They are found]<BR>Tafsir Ibn Kathir|2=(A bojujte na stezce Boží proti těm, kdož bojují proti vám,) Abu Al-`Aliyah řekl: "Toto byl první verš o bojování, který byl zjeven v Medíně. Od té doby, Aláhův pose bojovával jen proti těm, kteří bojovali proti němu a vynechával ne-bojovníky. Později, súra Bara'ah (kapitola 9 v Koránu) byla zjevena." `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam řekl podobně, poté řekl tohle bylo později '''zrušeno tím veršem'''abrogated by the Ayah}}
Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "This was the first Ayah about fighting that was revealed in Al-Madinah. Ever since it was revealed, Allah's Messenger '''used to''' fight only those who fought him and avoid non-combatants. Later, Surat Bara'ah (chapter 9 in the Korán) was revealed." `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said similarly, then he said that this was later '''abrogated by the Ayah'''}}
 
  
 
==Závěr==
 
==Závěr==

Revision as of 01:03, 29 February 2016

Abrogace (Nasch, čte se to česky "nasch") znamená, že jeden Koránový verš nahrazuje jiný. Tento princip je podpořen verši Koránu a různými hadísy.

Úvod

Pochopení nutnosti Nasch je důležité pro pochopení islámu a jeho teologie. Korán byl údajně zjeven andělem Džibrílem proroku Mohamedovi během dvaceti třech let.[1][2] Během těch let se mnoho změnilo v jeho osobním a soukromém životě.

Mohamed začal jako kazatel a skončil jako zakladatel a vládce prvního islámského státu, takže není překvapující, že styl a obsah pozdějších Medínských Koránových zjevení se změnily a často byly v rozporu s dřívějšími Mekkánskými.

Dnešní Korán, který nemá chronologicky uspořádané verše, může podporovat mnoho úhlů pohledu na různá témata, a když je přečten celý, mnoho súr se vzájemně vyvrací. Proto sám Mohamed (skrze Koránové zjevení) přišel s tímto konceptem v islámu.

Za časů chalífátu, některým učencům (obzvláště jednomu kazateli z Kufy, Irák) bylo zakázáno vysvětlovat a kázat Korán dle dřívějších islámských autorit (obvykle 'Alī, ale někdy také Ibn 'Abbās) kvůli jejich neznalosti principů nasch.[3][4]

Někteří trdí, že tato doktrína neexistuje nebo není součástí mainstreamového islámu. Nicméně, pokud se podíváme na chronologické pořadí zjevení, je to nepopiratelné. Navíc, muslimové se drží této doktríny každý den, zákazem pití alkoholu.

Korán

Verš 2:106

Arabsky:مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Transliterace: Ma nansakh min ayatin aw nunsiha na/ti bikhayrin minha aw mithliha alam taaalam anna Allaha aala kulli shay-in qadeerun

Shakir: Kdykoliv (jakýkoliv) zrušíme verš nějaký či dáme ti naň zapomenout, přineseme jiný, lepší anebo podobný. Což nevíš, že Bůh je všech věcí mocen?

Význam verše 2:106

Význam Nasch

Ibn Abi Talhah řekl, že Ibn `Abbas řekl, že,

(Jakýkoliv verš (zjevení) Nansakh) znamená, "Jakýkoliv verš zrušíme. Také, Ibn Jurayj řekl, že Mujahid řekl, že

(Jakýkoliv verš (zjevení) Nansakh) znamená, "Jakýkoliv verš smažeme. Také, Ibn Abi Najih řekl, že Mujahid řekl, že

(Jakékoliv (zjevení) Nansakh) znamená, "Ponecháváme slova, ale měníme význam. Vztahoval tyto slova ke společníkům `Abdullah bin Mas`ud. Ibn Abi Hatim řekl, že podobné tvrzení bylo zmíněno Abu Al-`Aliyahem a Mohamedem bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi. Také As-Suddi řekl, že,

(Jakýkoliv verš (zjevení) Nansakh) znamená, "Smažeme ho. Dále, Ibn Abi Hatim řekl, že to znamená , "Smazat, tak jako jsme smazali následující verše (z Koránu): `Ženatý nevěrník a vdaná nevěrnice: ukamenujte je k smrti,' a, `Pokud by syn Adamův měl dvě údolí bohatství, hledal by třetí.'

Ibn Jarir řekl, že

(Jakýkoliv verš (zjevení) Nansakh) znamená, "Jakékoliv rozhodnutí zrušíme ve verši, kterým uděláme dovolené nedovoleným nebo nedovolené dovoleným. Nasch se vyskytuje pouze u přikázání, zákazů, dovolení atd. Co se týče příběhů, jich se nasch netýká. Slovo `Nasch' doslovně znamená, `zkopírovat knihu'. Význam Nasch v případě příkazů je smazání příkazu a výměna za jiný. A ať už Nasch zahrnuje formulace, rozkazy nebo oboje, je vždy je to nasch.

Aláh dále řekl,

(nebo Nunsiha (jej dáme zapomenout)). `Ali bin Abi Talhah řekl, že Ibn `Abbas řekl, že,

(Jakýkoliv verš (zjevení) Nansakh nebo Nunsiha) znamená, "Jakýkoliv verš zrušíme nebo potvrdíme beze změny. Také, Mujahid řekl, že společníci Ibn Mas`uda (který toto slovo píše jako Nansa'ha) řekl, že to znamená, "Potvrzujeme jeho znění a měníme jeho význam. Dále, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Mujahid a `Ata' řekli, `Nansa'ha' znamená, "Odsouváme to (nerušíme). Dále, `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi řekl, že verš znamená , "Odkládáme zrušení. To je stejný tafsír poskytnutý od As-Suddi a Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. `Abdur-Razzaq řekl, že Ma`mar řekl, že Qatadah řekl o Aláhově tvrzení,

(Jakýkoliv verš (zjevení) zrušíme nebo dáme zapomenout) "Aláh dal prorokovi zapomenout co chtěl a zrušil co chtěl.

Aláh řekl,

(přineseme lepší, podobný), spíše, se týká prospěchu poskytovaného pro ten, kterého se to týká, bylo oznámeno od `Ali bin Abi Talhah že Ibn `Abbas řekl,

(přineseme lepší, podobný) znamená, "Zrodíme více prospěšné rozhodnutí, které je také jednodušší. Také, As-Suddi řekl, že,

(přineseme lepší nebo podobný) znamená, "Zrodíme lepší verš, nebo podobný tomu, který byl zrušen. Qatadah také řekl, že,

(přineseme lepší nebo tomu podobný) znamená, "Nahradíme jej veršem více snadnějším, dovolujícím, rozkazujícím nebo zakazujícím.
The Meaning of Nasch
Tafsir ibn Kathir

Verš 13:39

Bůh vymazává i potvrzuje to, co chce, a u Něho je Kniha původní.

Verš 16:101

A když zaměníme jeden verš veršem jiným - a Bůh nejlépe zná to, co sesílá - říkají: „Ty si to vymýšlíš!“ Však většina z nich nic neví!

Verše 17:85-86

A vyptávat se tě budou na Ducha. Odpověz: „Duch přichází z rozkazu Pána mého a bylo vám dáno z vědění, jen ne mnoho. Kdybychom chtěli, věru bychom odnesli to, co jsme ti vnukli, a potom bys nenašel proti Nám ochránce žádného ve věci té,

Verše 87:6-7

Naučíme tě přednášet a nezapomeneš nic z věci té, leda co Bůh bude chtít - a On zná zjevné i skryté -

Hadísy

Sahíh Buchárí

The following sahih narration indicates their are many verses in the Korán that have been abrogated, but all of them had to be included.

I said to 'Uthman bin 'Affan (while he was collecting the Korán) regarding the Verse:-- "Those of you who die and leave wives ..." (2.240) "This Verse was abrogated by an other Verse. So why should you write it? (Or leave it in the Korán)?" 'Uthman said. "O son of my brother! I will not shift anything of it from its place."
They had a choice, either fast or feed a poor for every day.." and added, "This Verse is abrogated."
That he heard Ibn 'Abbas reciting the Divine Verse:-- "And for those who can fast they had a choice either fast, or feed a poor for every day.." (2.184) Ibn 'Abbas said, "This Verse is not abrogated, but it is meant for old men and old women who have no strength to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day of fasting (instead of fasting).
"For those who can fast, they had a choice either fast, or feed a poor for every day," (2.184) was revealed, it was permissible for one to give a ransom and give up fasting, till the Verse succeeding it was revealed and abrogated it.
'Ata said: Ibn 'Abbas said, "This Verse, i.e. the Statement of Allah: "..without turning them out.." cancelled the obligation of staying for the waiting period in her dead husband's house, and she can complete this period wherever she likes
This Verse:--"Whether you show what is in your minds or conceal it.." (2.284) was abrogated
A man from the companions of Allah's Apostle who I think, was Ibn 'Umar said, "The Verse:-- ‘Whether you show what is in your minds or conceal it ...’ was abrogated by the Verse following it."

Sahíh Muslim

The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) abrogated some of his commands by others, just as the Korán abrogates some part with the other.
Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: This verse was revealed (in this way): "Guard the prayers and the 'Asr prayer." We recited it (in this very way) so long as Allah desired. Allah, then, abrogated it and it was revealed: "Guard the prayers, and the middle prayer." A person who was sitting with Shaqiq (one of the narrators in the chain of transmitters) said: Now it implies the 'Asr prayer. Upon this al-Bara' said: I have already informed you how this (verse) was revealed and how Allah abrogated it, and Allah knows best. Imam Muslim said: Ashja'i narrated it from Sufyan al-Thauri, who narrated it from al-Aswad b. Qais, who narrated it from 'Uqba, who narrated it from al-Bara' b. 'Azib who said: We recited with the Prophet (may peace be upon him) (the above-mentioned verse like this, i. e. instead of Salat al- Wusta, Salat al-'Asr) for a certain period, as it has been mentioned (in the above-quoted hadith).
Anas b. Malik reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) invoked curse in the morning (prayer) for thirty days upon those who killed the Companions (of the Holy Prophet) at Bi'r Ma'una. He cursed (the tribes) of Ri'l, Dhakwan, Lihyan, and Usayya, who had disobeyed Allah and His Messenger (may peace be upon him). Anas said: Allah the Exalted and Great revealed (a verse) regarding those who were killed at Bi'r Ma'una, and we recited it, till it was abrogated later on (and the verse was like this):, convey to it our people the tidings that we have met our Lord, and He was pleased with us and we were pleased with Him".
Sa'id b. Jubair reported: I said to Ibn Abbas: Will the repentance of that person be accepted who kills a believer intentionally? He said: No. I recited to him this verse of Sura al-Furqan (xix.): "And those who call not upon another god with Allah and slay not the soul which Allah has forbidden except in the cause of justice" to the end of the verse. He said: This is a Meccan verse which has been abrogated by a verse revealed at Medina: "He who slays a believer intentionally, for him is the requital of Hell-Fire where he would abide for ever," and in the narration of Ibn Hisham (the words are): I recited to him this verse of Sura al-Furqan: "Except one who made repentance." (see also Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 6, Book 60, Number 285)

Abu Dawud

In Surat al-Muzzammil (73), the verse: "Keep vigil at night but a little, a half thereof" (2-3) has been abrogated by the following verse: "He knoweth that ye count it not, and turneth unto you in mercy. Recite then of the Korán that which is easy for you" (v.20). The phrase "the vigil of the night" (nashi'at al-layl) means the early hours of the night. They (the companions) would pray (the tahajjud prayer) in the early hours of the night.
Ibn ‘Abbas said: When the opening verses of Surah asl-muzzammil (lxxiii.), were revealed, the Companions would pray as long as they would pray during Ramadan until its last verses were revealed.
Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three monthly courses; and then said: And for such of your women as despair of menstruation, if ye doubt, their period (of waiting) shall be three months. This was abrogated from the former verse. Again he said: (O ye who believe, if ye wed believing women) and divorce them before ye have touched them, then there is no period that ye should reckon.

Al Muwatta

Neither the abrogating nor the abrogated verses on suckling appear in the text of the Korán today. This, along with the Koránic verse of rajm (stoning), were written on a piece of paper and were reportedly lost when a goat ate them.[5]

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Amongst what was sent down of the Korán was 'ten known sucklings make haram' - then it was abrogated by 'five known sucklings'. When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died, it was what is now recited of the Korán." Yahya said that Malik said, "One does not act on this."
Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "This ayat is abrogated. It is the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, 'If he leaves goods, the testament is for parents and kinsmen.' What came down about the division of the fixed shares of inheritance in the Book of Allah, the Mighty, the Exalted, abrogated it" ...

Ibn Majah

It was narrated that 'Aishah said: “Once of the things that Allah revealed in the the Korán and then abrogated was that nothing makes marriage prohibited except ten breastfeedings or five well-known (breastfeedings).” (Sahih)
Ibn Majah Vol. 3, Book 9, Hadith 1942

Učenci

Mohamedovi Společníci

Podle Aliho, čtvrteého Správně-vedeného chalífy, znalost rozdílu mezi rušícími a zrušenými verši tě zachrání před zkázou.

Ali ['Ali ibn Abi Talib] řekl Abdul Rahmanovi “umíš rozlišit mezi rušícími a zrušenými verši” Abdul Rahman řekl: “ne.” Na to řekl Ali “Jsi zatracen a způsobuješ zatracení druhým.”[6]

"Přestože Mohamedovi společníci diskutovali o nasch, a i když se neshodli na abrogaci určitého verše, odkazování se na generaci Společníků v literatuře nasch je relativně vzácné.

Ibn Salama, al-Nasikh wa ‘l-mansukh (Cairo 1315/1899), 142-3, kde `Ali a Ibn ‘Abbas nesouhlasí o abrogaci Koránu 4:94; `Ali trval na tom, že tento verš byl zrušen Koránem 4:115 a 4:48, zatímco Ibn ‘Abbas trval na tom, že to zůstává muhkama.[7]

Early Scholars

"The number of verses that are considered to have been abrogated increased dramatically between the eighth and eleventh centuries (al-Zuhri mentions 42 abrogated verses, al-Nahhas 138, and Ibn Salama, 238), at which point an upper limit seems to have been reached (Ibn ‘Ata’iqi identifies 231 abrogated verses, and al-Farsi, 248).

- "al-Suyuti (d. 911/1505) recognised only twenty [20] instances of true abrogation and Shah Wali Allah (d 1762) reduced that number to five [5].

"these figures are mentioned in Ernest Hahn, ‘Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan’s The Controversy over Abrogation (in the Qur’an)

Ibn al-’Ata’iqi, on the other hand, while citing 231 instances of abrogation, appendixes the phrase wa fihi nazar, indicating doubt or uncertainty to his discussion of twenty-six verses."

.....

- "There is also considerable disagreement over the scope of abrogation within the Qur’an itself. At one extreme, there were apparently certain people who argued that ‘the Qur’an does not contain either an abrogated or an abrogating verse’.

("Ibn Salama, p. 26; cf. Al-Nahhas, pp 2-3"), these people, according to Ibn Salama, ‘have deviated from the truth and by virtue of their lying, have turned away from God’. ("Ibn Salama, p. 26)

At the other extreme were those scholars who maintained that any narrative, positive command, or prohibition in the Qur’an may be abrogated." ("Al-Nahhas, pp. 2-3")[7]

According to Ibn Salma , those who reject abrogation have deviated from the truth. Once again, its improtant to note at the time of the caliphate, some scholars (particularly a preacher from Kufa, Iraq) were banned from explaining and preaching the Qur'ān by early 'ilmic authority figures because of their ignorance of the principles of nasch.

Modern Scholars

Nasch is a fact since Allah Most High said "We do not erase (nansakh) any aya or cause it to be forgotten (nunsiha) but bring a better one or the like of it" (2:106).

Second, the mutual abrogability of the Korán and the Sunna (i) is rationally possible - since the Korán describes the Sunna as revealed as well: "Nor does he speak of his own desire" (53:3) - and (ii) occurs in the Law, as per the abrogation of the verse of bequest (2:180) by the mass-transmitted hadith "There is no bequest for anyone who stands to inherit."

Imam al-Shafi`i famously dissented with the massive majority of the Scholars when he said that only the Korán abrogates the Korán and only the Sunna abrogates the Sunna, but his School did not follow him in this cf. Imam al-Haramayn in Mughith al-Khalq and the contemporary Shaykh Hasan Hitu in al-Wajiz fi Usul al-Tashri` al-Islami, both staunch Shafi`is.

We should be aware that in recent times the tendency has been toward minimalism, much of it a reaction to Orientalist and other attempts to construe nasch as a literary rewrite invalidating Divine origin, some Muslim revisionists even forwarding the view that there is no abrogation in the Korán. However, of the 60-odd teatises written on abrogation there is no precedent for such an extreme view. The number of cases hovers around 200, peaking at 247 with Ibn al-Jawzi, 214 with Ibn Hazm and 213 with Hibat Allah ibn Salama while falling to 134 with al-Nahhas and only 66 with `Abd al-Qahir al-Baghdadi.

The Mu`tazili grammarian and author of the Koránic commentary Jami` al-Ta'wil li-Muhkam al-Tanzil, Abu Muslim al-Asfahani (254-322), was reputed to have denied intra-Koránic nasch altogether. Al-Razi and al-Shawkani refuted him in al-Mahsul and Irshad al-Fusul respectively, but others (such as Ibn Daqiq al-`Id and the contemporary scholar `Ali Hasabullah) justified his stance as a difference in terminology only (khilaf lafzi) - due, for example, to interpreting the word aya as "(super)natural sign" or "previous Scriptures" rather than "Koránic verse," or a reconsideration of purported abrogation to be mere specification (ikhtisas). Hence al-Qarafi's rebuttal, when al-Razi questioned the claim of consensus on the existence of abrogation: "Agreement has indeed formed over meaning; difference is only over naming."
Abrogation and Hadith
Shaykh Gibril Fouad Haddad, living islam, December 23, 2008

Dezinformace šířené apologety

Jen Mekkánské verše jsou obecná přkázání

When you understand abrogation, you understand what drives Islamic terrorism and extremism. This has led some apologists to flatly deny they are even aware of such a concept existing within Islam. Some have even attempted to create their own methods in choosing which verses apply to today's world.

One such example of this is the reversal of the truth; it is the obscure and baseless claim that the Medinan verses are read only in an historical and non-legal context, while the less violent Meccan verses are universal commands.

This in itself is not a negative thing, but when they try to pass this off to non-Muslims as authentic Islam and claim this is widely accepted by Islamic scholars, while never attempting to rectify the alleged misconceptions with their co-religionists, it is nothing more than deceptive propaganda.

Furthermore, theologically this claim makes zero sense. It contradicts several sahih hadith, and Qur'an 5:90-91 which prohibit the consumption of Alcohol and gambling, are Medinan verses.[8][9][10][11][12]

Prior to the revelation of these verses, there were no prohibitions against intoxicants and games of chance. So when is the last time you have heard Muslims claiming drinking alcohol and gambling is permitted in Islam today?

Abrogace existuje jen mezi Koránem a předešlými knihami

Many modern apologists assert that abrogation does not exist within the Korán itself, but that the abrogation mentioned in Quran 2:106 and Quran 16:101 refers to the Korán replacing directives given in the Taurat and Injil.

Although this understanding has already been shown to be in error by Ibn Kathir's commentary here, let us take a look at these verses in context.

And when We change (one) communication for (another) communication, and Allah knows best what He reveals, they say: You are only a forger. Nay, most of them do not know

Say: The Holy spirit has revealed it from your Lord with the truth, that it may establish those who believe and as a guidance and good news for those who submit.

And certainly We know that they say: Only a mortal teaches him. The tongue of him whom they reproach is barbarous, and this is clear Arabic tongue.

(As for) those who do not believe in Allah's communications, surely Allah will not guide them, and they shall have a painful punishment.
Qur'an 16:101-104

According to Islam, the Book of Musa was revealed from Allah to Moses (not via the Korán's “Holy Spirit” which is Jibreel, an Angel). The Gospels which the Korán talks about were written by people who were there, or revealed in visions from Allah etc. Again no angels were involved with the revelation of the previous scriptures. So verse 16:101 is clearly talking about Mohamed and the revelation of the Korán after talking about abrogation.

Those who disbelieve from among the followers of the Book do not like, nor do the polytheists, that the good should be sent down to you from your Lord, and Allah chooses especially whom He pleases for His mercy, and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.

Whatever communications We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or like it. Do you not know that Allah has power over all things?

Do you not know that Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and that besides Allah you have no guardian or helper?

Rather you wish to put questions to your Messenger, as Musa was questioned before; and whoever adopts unbelief instead of faith, he indeed has lost the right direction of the way.
Qur'an 2:105-108

Verse 2:106 in context is clearly talking about those who questioned Mohamed about his contradictions, hence the revelation regarding “abrogation”. This has nothing to do with the “previous scriptures” either. So far its abrogation within the Korán itself.

Looking at verse 2:136, Allah says there is no distinction between the previous messages.

Say: We believe in Allah and (in) that which had been revealed to us, and (in) that which was revealed to Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq and Yaqoub and the tribes, and (in) that which was given to Musa and Isa, and (in) that which was given to the prophets from their Lord, we do not make any distinction between any of them, and to Him do we submit.

Since Isa never wrote a book, we can infer that Allah is talking about the Injil, and Musa; the Taurat. Why would Allah “make no distinction” between them if he had abrogated parts of it? Surely he would have seen fit to mention “except the parts we have substituted”?

Příklady abrogace

Nebudiž žádného donucování v náboženství

Verse 2:256

Nebudiž žádného donucování v náboženství! A již bylo jasně rozlišeno správné vedení od bloudění! Ten, kdo nevěří v Tághúta a věří v Boha, ten uchopil se rukojeti spolehlivé, jež nikdy se neutrhne. A Bůh je slyšící, vševědoucí.

Význam verše 2:256

Allah says: "There is no compulsion in religion", meaning: do not force anyone to embrace Islam, because it is clear and its proofs and evidences are manifest. Whoever Allah guides and opens his heart to Islam has indeed embraced it with clear evidence. Whoever Allah misguides blinds his heart and has set a seal on his hearing and a covering on his eyes cannot embrace Islam by force...hence Allah revealed this verse. But, this verse is abrogated by the verse of "fighting...Therefore, all people of the world should be called to Islam. If anyone of them refuses to do so, or refuses to pay the Jizya they should be fought till they are killed. This is the meaning of compulsion. In the Sahih, the Prophet said: "Allah wonders at those people who will enter Paradise in chains", meaning prisoners brought in chains to the Islamic state, then they embrace Islam sincerely and become righteous, and are entered among the people of Paradise.[13][14]
Tafsir Ibn Kathir (unabridged)

If they incline towards peace, you incline also

Verse 8:60

But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things).

Meaning of Verse 8:60

‘This has been abrogated by the “sword verse” [Q. 9:5]’
Surat Al-'Anfāl (The Spoils of War) 8:61
Ibn Abbas in Tafsir Ibn Abbas and Tafsir al-Jalalayn (Suyuti)

Scholars on 8:60

"It is the consensus of the scholars of this Ummah that if part of the religion is Allah's and other part is not, fighting must go on until the entire religion is Allah's".[15]
Ibn Taymiyyah, ‘Governance According to Allaah’s Law in Reforming the Ruler and his Flock’
"Jihad and the rifle alone. NO negotiations, NO conferences and NO dialogue."
Join The Caravan, p.9
Imam Abdullah Azzam
"So, if the fighting stops, the disbelievers will dominate, and fitnah, which is Shirk (polytheism), will spread."
Join The Caravan, p.20
Imam Abdullah Azzam

Bojujte proti těm, kteří bojují proti vám, Aláh nesnáší agresory

Verse 2:190

A bojujte na stezce Boží proti těm, kdož bojují proti vám, avšak nečiňte bezpráví, neboť Bůh nemiluje ty, kdož se bezpráví dopouštějí.

Význam verše 2:190

tato podmínka byla zrušena veršem barā’a, ‘imunita’ [Q. 9:1], nebo jeho rčením (níže):
Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2:190
Tafsir al jalayn (Suyuti)
(A bojujte na stezce Boží proti těm, kdož bojují proti vám,) Abu Al-`Aliyah řekl: "Toto byl první verš o bojování, který byl zjeven v Medíně. Od té doby, Aláhův pose bojovával jen proti těm, kteří bojovali proti němu a vynechával ne-bojovníky. Později, súra Bara'ah (kapitola 9 v Koránu) byla zjevena." `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam řekl podobně, poté řekl tohle bylo později zrušeno tím veršemabrogated by the Ayah

Závěr

Súra Tawbah je poslední súrou Koránu

Al Taubah (Pokání) je považována za závěrečné slovo Aláhovo. Zároveň je to nejagrasivnější kapitola celého Koránu.

Abu Ishaq řekl, že slyšel al-Bara' b 'Azib říct: Poslední celou zjevenou súrou je (ve svatém Koránu) je Sura tauba (aka al-Bara'at, ix.), a posledním zjeveným veršem je ten týkající se Kalala.
(*Ptají se tě na zákonné rozhodnutí. Řekni: "Aláh určuje tedy o Kalala )

Súra Tawbah ruší všechny mírové dohody

"Ibn `Umar řekl, že posel Aláhův řekl:

Bylo mi přikázáno bojovat proti lidem dokud neřeknou, že není žádného boha, než Aláha a Mohamed je posel Aláhův, začnou se modlit a platit zakát.

Tento ctihodný verš (9:5) byl nazván Veršem meče, o kterém Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim řekl: "Zrušil všechny dohody o míru mezi prorokem a jakýmkoliv modloslužebníkem, každou dohodu a každou lhůtu." Al-`Awfi řekl, že Ibn `Abbas komentoval: "Žádný modloslužbník už neměl smlouvu nebo slib bezpečí od té doby, co byla zjevena súra Surah Bara'ah.

Viz také

Externí odkazy

Reference

  1. Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers,
  2. Quran 17:106
  3. Powers, The Exegetical Genre nāsikh al-Qur'ān wa mansūkhuhu, ISBN 0-19-826546-8, p. 124
  4. Andrew Rippin, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 47, ISSN 0041-977X, pp. 26, 38
  5. Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal. vol. 6. page 269; Sunan Ibn Majah, page 626; Ibn Qutbah, Tawil Mukhtalafi 'l-Hadith (Cairo: Maktaba al-Kulliyat al-Azhariyya. 1966) page 310; As-Suyuti, ad-Durru 'l-Manthur, vol. 2. page 13
  6. Annasikh-wal-Mansukh, od Abul Qasim, publikován u Hindia Press, Cairo, p. 6. Podobné rčení lze naleznout v An-Nasikh -wal- Mansukh (rušící & zrušený), od Abu Ja'afar An-Nah'has, Beirut, 2003, p. 9, a Nawasikh Al-Korán (Abrogace Koránu), od Ibn Al-Jauzy, Beirut 2002, p. 24, a Al-Itqan Fi Ulum Al Korán od Al-Suyuti, II, p. 700.
  7. 7.0 7.1 (referenced by A.Rippin) Abrogation and the Koran - David Bukay, School of Political Science, The University of Haifa
  8. Allamah Abu 'Abd Allah al-Zanjani - The History of the Quran - Al-Tawheed Vol. 4, No. 3; Vol. 5, No. 1, 2, & 3
  9. Quran Verses in Chronological Order - Qran.org, accessed May 13, 2011
  10. Kevin P. Edgecomb - Chronological Order of Quranic Surahs - Bombaxo, 2002
  11. Quran Chapters and their Chronological Sequence of Revelation - International Community of Submitters (ICS)
  12. Revelation Order - Tanzil Project, accessed May 13, 2011
  13. David Bukay - Abrogation and the Koran - School of Political Science, The University of Haifa
  14. Sam Shamoun and Jochen Katz - Sunni Muslims and Taqiyyah - Answering Islam
  15. Shaykh ul-Islaam Taqi ud-Deen Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah - 'The Religious and Moral Doctrine of Jihaad' - p.28, © Copyright 2001 Maktabah Al Ansaar Publications, ISBN: 0-9539847-5-3