WikiIslam:Citing Sources

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A citation, or reference, uniquely identifies a source of information. Citations are used to identify the reliable sources on which all WikiIslam articles are based. They usually appear on pages in the form of footnotes and are indicated by a superscript number in a line of text.

Ref Tags[edit]

All statements of facts, especially those that are likely to be challenged, must be referenced using inline citations. A general list of references at the bottom of a page is of little use because they do not specify which particular statements they support.

Single Citation[edit]

An example of a reference being made on a page:

This is how to provide inline citations.[1]

(article text)

(more article text)

References


  1. This is the reference text. Links can also be provided

Here is what has to be typed:

This is how to provide inline citations.<ref>This is the reference text. [http://example.com/ Links can also be provided]</ref>

At the end of an article, there should be a "References" heading and below that:

{{reflist}}

The wiki will then automatically do everything else to produce the reference. To edit the reference section produced at the bottom, edit the <ref> tags.

Multiple Citations[edit]

For multiple citations of the same reference or footnote:

<ref name="name here">details of the citation</ref>

Thereafter, the same footnote may be used multiple times by adding:

<ref name="name here"></ref>

Multi-Columned References[edit]

For ease of reading, when a page includes many citations, the standard {{reflist}} template should be replaced by {{Reflist|30em}} (for 10+ citations).

Cite Web[edit]

The Cite Web template deals with the actual references i.e. the content that goes between the ref tags. Its use ensures that the formatting for references remains consistent throughout the site and also enables easy system-wide changes.

When citing references in articles, it is important not to leave naked URLs. What is being referenced should be easily identifiable without having to leave the page through an external link. For example, this link:

http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888

When applied to the Cite Web template:

{{cite web|url= http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888|title= Productivity suffers during holy month|publisher= The Jordan Times|author= Mohammad Ghazal|date= September 10, 2009|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888&date=2011-04-04|deadurl=no}}

Should produce this:

Mohammad Ghazal, "Productivity suffers during holy month", The Jordan Times, September 10, 2009 (archived), http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888. 

Minimal Parameters[edit]

{{cite web| url= | title= | author= | publisher= | date= | archiveurl= | deadurl=no/yes}}
  • url= URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.
  • title= Title of web page. Displays in quotes.
  • author= Name of author or authors if available.
  • publisher= Organization or website's name. A website's URL should be used only when there is no proper name available. So, for example, Islam Q&A is located at islamqa.info, but Islam Q&A is the title that should be cited as the publisher.
  • date= Full date of source being referenced in the month/day/year format (e.g. February 21, 2014). This is the date mentioned on the website (if any).
  • accessdate= Full date when URL was accessed (use if the sourced page does not indicate a date of publication).
  • archiveurl= The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the url becomes unavailable. Typically used to refer to services like WebCite.
  • deadurl= When the URL is still live, but preemptively archived, then set |deadurl=no. This changes the display order with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end.

Additional Parameters[edit]

| accessdate= | series= | isbn= | page= | pages= | quote= | language=
  • series= Additional information that cannot be included under author or publisher. For example journal number
  • quote= Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes. When supplied, the citation terminator (a period by default) is suppressed, so the quote needs to include terminating punctuation.
  • isbn= For citing books. The ISBN is a numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit SBN code. Most published books have them.
  • page= Page number of the book/journal being cited.
  • pages= Page numbers of the book/journal being cited. Used when the information is spread over more than 1 page (e.g. 223-224).
  • language= Language of content being cited. Only needed for languages other than English

Archived Links[edit]

Link rot is a frequently occurring phenomena where external website links become unavailable after some time.

The 404 "Not Found" response is familiar to even the occasional Web user. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of link rot on the Web, in academic literature, and in digital libraries. In a 2003 experiment, Fetterly et al. discovered that about one link out of every 200 disappeared each week from the internet. McCown et al. (2005) discovered that half of the URLs cited in D-Lib Magazine articles were no longer accessible 10 years after publication, and other studies have shown link rot in academic literature to be even worse (Spinellis, 2003, Lawrence et al., 2001). Nelson and Allen (2002) examined link rot in digital libraries and found that about 3% of the objects were no longer accessible after one year.

The Cite Web template has two parameters dedicated to archived links. This is due to the many sources that are comprised of links to external websites, making the preservation of the content of these external links very important. However, archiving links is very easy and only takes a moment.

WebCitation.org[edit]

WebCite archives:

  • Regular web pages
  • Forum threads
  • Blogs
  • PDF and other media files

But it does not archive Facebook pages.

To archive a page, enter the target URL and any email address as that of the citing author on the WebCite archive form (http://www.webcitation.org/archive), then press submit. Using the "transparent" WebCite URL is preferred over the short one.

Archive.is[edit]

Archive.is archives:

  • Regular web pages
  • Forum threads
  • Blogs
  • Facebook pages

But it does not archive PDF and other media files.

To archive a page, enter the target URL into the "submit url" box (http://archive.is/) and press submit. You will then see the new archived URL that can be used in the 'archiveurl' parameter for the Cite Web template.

Embedded Links[edit]

Embedded links to external websites should never be used as a form of inline citation. Nevertheless, they are used on occasion, for example, in the Translations of Arabic/Islamic Media pages. In these rare instances, only a single link is appropriate, rather than both the original and the archive link side-by-side. For these, the Reference archive template should be used.

To use this template, the target URL would have to be archived by entering it into the WebCite archive form (http://www.webcitation.org/archive).

Then the target URL in its original form, along with the date it was archived, need to be added to the Reference archive:

{{Reference archive|1=###|2=###}}

The first parameter is the original URL, and the second parameter is the date it was archived. The date format is year-month-day, all in numbers rather than words (e.g. 2014-02-26 rather than February 26, 2014).

If absolutely needed, embedded links to Wikipedia can be made by using the [[w:Target article|Text]] feature or {{wp|article name}}. As with embedded links to other sites, these links should never be used as a form of inline citation.

Islamic Text[edit]

Templates make it easy to cite Islamic sources. For example, instead of finding the exact USC-MSA URL of a Qur'an verse or hadith, all that is needed is to type {{Muslim|7|88}} and the reference and link is automatically created.

The following are a list of templates that are available for use:

Referencing the Qur'an[edit]

Not all Qur'an-related templates are covered here. Refer to the Q section in Category:Templates for the full list.

Single Verse[edit]

To reference a verse from the Qur'an type: {{Quran|#|#}}

The first parameter is the chapter/surah number, while the second parameter is the verse number.

Multiple Verses[edit]

To reference multiple verses from the Qur'an type: {{Quran-range|#|#|#}}

The first parameter is the chapter/surah number, while the second parameter is the starting verse number, and the third parameter is the ending verse number.

Verse and Transliteration[edit]

To reference a verse from the Qur'an along with its Romanized transliteration type: {{Qtt|#|#}}

The first parameter is the chapter/surah number, while the second parameter is the verse number.

Referencing Hadith[edit]

Referencing Bukhari[edit]

To reference a hadith from Bukhari type: {{Bukhari|#|#|#}} The first parameter is the volume number, the second parameter is the book number and the third parameter is the narration number.

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system.

Alternative Sahih Bukhari referencing systems can also be used. You can cite a hadith using its Dar-us-Salam reference number (as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Bukhari) by adding an additional parameter with the value "darussalam".

To do so type: {{Bukhari|||#|darussalam}} (note that the first parameter for the volume number and second parameter for the book number are left empty for Dar-us-Salam Reference citations)

You can also cite a Bukhari hadith using the In-book reference convention (used on sunnah.com) by adding an additional parameter with the value "in-book".

To do so type: {{Bukhari||#|#|in-book}} (note that the first parameter for the volume is left empty for in-book citations)

The book number in the In-book reference system corresponds with the book number in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Bukhari, and the hadith number is an incremental number which starts at 1 for the first hadith in each book.

The alternative referencing systems allow hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).

Referencing Muslim[edit]

To reference a hadith from Muslim type: {{Muslim|#|#}}

The first parameter is the book number and the second parameter is the narration number.

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system.

Alternative Sahih Muslim referencing systems can also be used. You can cite a hadith by a single hadith reference number as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sahih Muslim by adding an additional parameter with the value "reference". Please note that this is not the square bracket number in the Dar-us-Salam edition, but rather the round bracket number for the hadith in the same book, which was devised by the Islamic scholar Fuwad Abdul Baqi. This is a number commonly used when citing hadiths in Sahih Muslim.

To do so type: {{Muslim||#|reference}} (note that the first parameter for the book number is left empty for Dar-us-Salam Reference citations)

You can also cite a Sahih Muslim hadith using the In-book reference convention (used on sunnah.com) by adding an additional parameter with the value "in-book".

To do so type: {{Muslim|#|#|in-book}}

The book number in the In-book reference system corresponds with the book number in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sahih Muslim, and the hadith number is an incremental number which starts at 1 for the first hadith in each book.

The alternative referencing systems allow hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).

Referencing Abu Dawud[edit]

To reference a hadith from Abu Dawud type: {{Abudawud|#|#}}

The first parameter is the book number and the second parameter is the narration number.

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system. The USC-MSA (CMJE) partial collection for Abu Dawud only included roughly half of his hadiths.

Alternative Abu Dawud referencing systems can also be used, which cover the entire collection. You can cite a hadith using its Dar-us-Salam reference number (as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sunan Abu Dawud) by adding an additional parameter with the value "darussalam".

To do so type: {{Abudawud||#|darussalam}} (note that the first parameter for the book number is left empty for Dar-us-Salam Reference citations)

You can also cite a Sunan Abu Dawud hadith using the reference system found in the translation of the entire Abu Dawud collection by Ahmad Hasan (this translation is used by USC-MSA and other popular sites). You can do this by adding an additional parameter with the value "hasan".

To do so type: {{Abudawud||#|hasan}} (note that the first parameter for the book number is left empty for Ahmad Hasan reference citations - they are not used because his book numbers varied depending on the edition).

Ahmad Hasan's hadith (narration) numbers were also used by USC-MSA (for the hadiths in their partial collection). USC-MSA used the book numbers from the 1990 edition of Hasan's translation, which had 41 books unlike the other editions in which he put the same hadiths into 36 books.

The alternative referencing systems allow hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).

Referencing Muwatta[edit]

To reference a hadith from Malik's Muwatta type: {{Muwatta|#||#}} (note the empty 2nd parameter)

The first parameter is the book number, the second parameter is the section number (no longer used), and the third parameter is the narration number. If you do happen to know the section number (second parameter) for the hadith you are citing, put it in anyway as it might be useful one day.

An optional fourth parameter allowed a suffix to be added to the narration number (no longer used, but put it in if you know there is one in case it's useful one day). The disused 2nd and 4th parameters are retained for the sake of earlier citations which had them, and their values are visible on the pages although not included in the links (except when they were mistakenly used for the book and hadith number - the template can detect this).

By default, this will create a link using the USC-MSA hadith referencing system.

An alternative Muwatta referencing system can be used by adding an additional parameter with the value "in-book". This is called 'Arabic reference' for Muwatta Malik on sunnah.com.

To do so type: {{Muwatta|#||#||in-book}} (note the empty 2nd and 4th parameters)

The alternative referencing system allows hadiths to be cited that did not appear within the USC-MSA collection. It also allows a specific hadith to be cited when there are multiple hadiths with the same USC-MSA number (a link using the default USC-MSA referencing system would display a list of hadiths in that situation).}}

Referencing Tirmidhi[edit]

To reference a hadith from Tirmidhi type: {{Al Tirmidhi||#|#|#}} (note the empty first parameter)

The first parameter is the book number on sunnah.com (can be left blank), the second parameter is the volume number, the third parameter is the book number, and the forth parameter is the narration number.

This provides the full citation as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Jami` at-Tirmidhi (this is the reference called "English translation" on sunnah.com).

The first parameter was used by the old template to link to the relevant book on sunnah.com. It is no longer used and can be left empty, but is retained for the sake of existing citations that used 4 parameters. It is recommended to input this parameter in case it is ever needed in future.


Referencing Nasa'i[edit]

To reference a hadith from Nasai'i type: {{Al Nasai||#|#|#}} (note the empty first parameter)

The first parameter can be left blank, the second parameter is the volume number, the third parameter is the book number, and the forth parameter is the narration number.

This provides the full citation as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sunan an-Nasa'i (this is the reference called "English translation" on sunnah.com).

The first parameter is no longer used and can be left empty, but is retained for the sake of existing citations that used 4 parameters. It was used by the old template to link to the relevant book on sunnah.com. In any case for Nasa'i it was always the same as the book number in the 3rd parameter, so was redundant anyway.


Referencing Ibn Majah[edit]

To reference a hadith from Ibn Majah type: {{Ibn Majah||#|#|#}} (note the empty first parameter)

The first parameter can be left blank, the second parameter is the volume number, the third parameter is the book number, and the forth parameter is the narration number.

This provides the full citation as found in the Dar-us-Salam print edition of Sunan Ibn Majah (this is the reference called "English translation" on sunnah.com).

The first parameter is no longer used and can be left empty, but is retained for the sake of existing citations that used 4 parameters. It was used by the old template to link to the relevant book on sunnah.com. In any case for Ibn Majah it was always the same as the book number in the 3rd parameter, so was redundant anyway.

Referencing Sirah[edit]

Referencing Tabari[edit]

To reference text from Tabari type: {{Tabari|###|###}}

The first parameter is the volume number and the second parameter is the page or page range. "p." or "pp." (whichever is applicable) will have to be typed in manually. For example, {{Tabari|4|p. 220}} or {{Tabari|4|pp. 220-221}}.

Examples[edit]

Input Output
{{Quran|2|35}} Qur'an 2:35
{{Quran-range|2|35|36}} Qur'an 2:35-36
{{Qtt|2|35}} Qur'an Text/Transliteration 2:35
{{Bukhari|1|1|5}} Sahih Bukhari 1:1:5
{{Muslim|1|5}} Sahih Muslim 1:5
{{Abudawud|1|7}} Sunan Abu Dawud 1:7
{{Muwatta|1|1|5|}}

Al-Muwatta 1:5

{{Al Tirmidhi|2|1|2|6}} Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1:2:6
{{Al Nasai|26|4|26|3257}} Sunan an-Nasa'i 4:26:3257
{{Ibn Majah|9|3|9|1903}} Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1903
{{Tabari|4|p. 220}} Al-Tabari, Vol. 4, p. 220

Quotation Boxes[edit]

When quoting a source, type: {{Quote|###|###}}

The first parameter is the reference for the text being quoted (this parameters can be left empty if references are being cited via ref tags). The second parameter is where the actual quotation is placed.

Islamic Texts[edit]

To quote an Islamic text, the relevant template for referencing that particular text must be placed within the first parameter of the quotation box template.

For example, to quote Qur'an 2:256, this is what has to be typed:

{{Quote|{{Quran|2|256}}|Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error...}}

And it should produce this:

Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error...

Bold or italic emphasis may be added to quotations, but underlining and ALLCAPS should be avoided.

General Sources[edit]

For quoting general sources, a modified version of the Cite Web template is used (minimal and additional parameters remain unchanged).

{{cite web quotebox|url= |title= |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl= |deadurl=no}}

The modified Cite Web template must be placed within the first parameter of the quotation box template. For example, this link and all of the relevant information:

http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888

When applied to the modified Cite Web template and the quotations template:

{{Quote|{{cite web quotebox|url= http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888|title= Productivity suffers during holy month|publisher= The Jordan Times|author= Mohammad Ghazal|date= September 10, 2009|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888&date=2011-04-04|deadurl=no}}|The holy month at the time of the Prophet Mohammad and his companions was a time of great achievements and crucial battles won by the Muslims, Sharia (Islamic law) scholar Hamdi Murad said Wednesday.}}

Should produce this:

The holy month at the time of the Prophet Mohammad and his companions was a time of great achievements and crucial battles won by the Muslims, Sharia (Islamic law) scholar Hamdi Murad said Wednesday.
"Productivity suffers during holy month" (archived)
Mohammad Ghazal, The Jordan Times, September 10, 2009, http://www.jordantimes.com/?news=19888.
 

See Also[edit]