Geocentrism and the Qur'an

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This article will examine the evidence for Qur'anic geocentric cosmology.



Some may confuse geocentricism with the the idea that the Earth is flat. This is not the case. These are two different ideas. Geocentrism simply is the notion that the earth is the (immovable) centre of our universe, thus all celestial bodies move around it. The ancient Greeks and the Europeans of the middle ages thought that the celestial bodies (the sun, the moon and the 5 known planets) all moved in celestial spheres around a spherical earth. It should be noted that even though not all geocentrists are flat-earthers invariably all flat-earthers seem to be geocentrists.

It seems the author of the Qur'an thought that the sun (and the moon and the five known planets) followed a curved (rounded) course (a Falak).[1] According to the Qur'an this falak starts in the east (where the sun goes up), goes high above the earth and ends after sunset with the Sun resting at night at a hidden place. All this took place around an earth that was spread out and had a firmament built on invisible pillars above it. This was a common belief at the time and can be found with the Babylonians, ancient Hebrews, the Assyrians and other cultures in the region. In that regard it may be interesting to note that the Tawaf (the circling of the Ka'aba) mimics these seven orbits.

Primary Evidence[edit]

The following is a list of what makes the Qur'an geocentric. A detailed discussion and further evidence follows in the rest of the article.

  1. It is very clear from the Qur'an and scientific observations that the moon makes rounds around the earth. The Qur'an mentions the sun and the moon in such a way as if they are following each other. The courses taken by both the sun and moon are visible to the people addressed in the Qur'an.
  2. The floating/swimming/running (the verb جري) of the sun is always mentioned with that of the moon, and in these verses they are nearly always mentioned in the context of night and day.[2]
  3. Qur'an 36:37-40 is a passage about night and day.[3] Right after describing the change from day to night it says that the sun runs on to a resting place for it.[4] There are also sahih hadith that use the same Arabic word as in verse 36:38 to mean a resting place as part of the sun's daily cycle.[5]

    The alternative view was that it refers to the sun's final resting on the last day.[6] Another similar sahih hadith probably supports this view.[7] Whichever interpretation was intended, the sun's movement is nevertheless mentioned right after describing day and night, just as the next verse mentions the different mansions appointed for the moon each night. The whole passage is about day and night and the sun and moon's movement in that context.

  4. There is only one moon and one sun in the entire Qur'anic universe. The position of all these celestial bodies within this universe are clearly described in the Qur'an. For example, the heavens are above the earth, and the sun, moon and stars are within the heavens.[8]
  5. The Qur'an mentions heavenly bodies traveling in their own orbits (or more precisely, each in a rounded course, "falak"), but so do the concepts of day and night each have an orbit. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, though on the last day they will be joined together, which is rather suggestive of them orbiting the same body at a similar distance from us.
  6. The heavens are firmly held in place lest they move from where they are and fall on the earth.[9] Note that there is no mention of orbits for the heavens or the earth in the Qur'an. Their positions are fixed. An orbit is only mentioned for the sun and the moon. Not even the stars have an orbit, for they are as if hanging down from the heavens like a light bulb from the ceiling in a room.

For the Qur'an to be scientific, it must contain accurate statements in regards to all that is visible i.e. material objects and phenomena. How can Allah appeal to such things as signs of his power and existence if he fails to make his case obvious?

All the evidence in the Qur'an points very strongly to the fact that the author had been observing the universe, not from the heavens, but from the Arabian Desert. The author states that the heavens are above the earth. Why? Because they were looking at the heavens from the Arabian floor and not from the vast space above or below. Otherwise Allah would have seen the Milky Way as a disc. Our solar system too is a disc. The earth is just one of the planets moving around the sun. However, in the the Qur'an, the sky is mistakenly being referred to as if it were a solid structure that could fall upon the earth and crush people and things between them. There are verses upon verses which lead to these conclusions.

The sun and moon are signs from Allah[edit]

According to the Qur'an, the sun and the moon are some of the signs (al ayaat) that are created by Allah. In the Qur'an, Allah also promises to "explain his signs in detail, for people who have knowledge."

It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light and measured out its (their) stages, that you might know the number of years and the reckoning. Allāh did not create this but in truth. He explains the signs in detail for people who have knowledge.

Yussuf Ali - (he explains in detail) al ayaat (the signs) Li (for) Qawmin (people) Yalamoon (knowing).

Apologists may say that these detailed explanation are only correctly understood by them (since only they have knowledge); but this is of course circular reasoning. ("You first have to believe the Qur'an to be 100% true to be qualified to criticize its veracity.") Even if this were true, these Muslim possessors of 'true' knowledge should be able to provide a coherent, unambiguous explanation of the Qur'an and its miraculous signs - and if how early learned Muslims (including Muhammad himself) explained these verses was examined by them, they would find that they confirm a geocentric cosmology.

The visibility of the sun's movement[edit]

A common claim is that references in the Qur'an to the sun's movement concern its 225 million year orbit around our milky way galaxy rather than to a geocentric orbit. Yet the author of the Qur'an describes a movement of the sun (as well as of the moon) that he expects any of its listeners to see, hence it does not mean a galactic orbit.

Do you not see that Allah causes the night to enter the day and causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term, and that Allah, with whatever you do, is Acquainted?

These were all visible phenomena to the people of the 7th century; they could 'see' the night turn into day and vice versa, they could see the sun and the moon run their courses around the earth. The people could see Allah's signs, and Allah could see them. At various places in the Qur'an, numerous observers 'see' the sun go up, reach its highest point, then go back down to its resting place.

أَلَمْ تَرَ = Alam Tara (”Don’t you see?")

It could be argued that "don't you see" means "don't you know" or "aren't you aware" or "don't you realise". Of course this does not make much of a difference. In this case, the Qur'an clearly reinforces the common but incorrect beliefs of the time, and further uses these erroneous beliefs to support the existence of Allah.

The sun and moon running their courses are signs (ayaat) to mankind and thus they must be visible (or known) to a 7th century Arab audience.

[…] He has subjected the sun and the moon! Each one runs for a term appointed. He regulates the matter, explaining the signs in detail, so you can be certain of meeting with your Lord.

yudabbiru (he arranges / regulates) al amra (the matter) yufassilu (he explains in detail) al ayaat (the signs) la allakum (so you may) biliqai (meeting) rabbikum (with your Lord) tūqinūna (be certain)

Have you not seen see how your Lord spread the shadow. If He willed he could make it stationary. Then do We make the sun its guide.

الشَّمسَ عَلَيهِ دَلِيل = ash shamsa (the sun) `alayhi (for it) dalilaan (a guide / an indication)

Here is how the Qur'an tells of an indirect observation of the sun's movement. It says that a shadow that the sun casts moves because of the sun. And humans should be able to see this. Of course, this is exactly how it would appear to someone observing the phenomena standing on earth; however, this is not how it would be described if it was being viewed from outside our solar system. It is not the sun but the rotation of earth which causes shadows to change shape.

Interestingly, the length of the shadow cast by the sun is also used to determine the start of the Asr prayer time; the apparent movement of the sun is still used by Muslims as a clock of sorts.

Art thou not aware of thy Sustainer [through His works]? - how He causes the shadow to lengthen [towards the night] when, had He so willed, He could indeed have made it stand still: but then, We have made the sun its guide;

The course of the sun in relation to the course of the moon[edit]

The courses of the sun and the moon are also a pair of sorts, according to the Qur'an.

By the sun and his brightness, And the moon when she followeth him

Waalshshamsi (and the sun) waduhaha (and its brightness) Waalqamari (and the moon) itha talaha (when it follows it)

This indicates that the sun takes a path or action similar to that of the moon (which does indeed go around the earth once per month, and to an ancient person seems to do so on a nightly basis). The word translated "follow" is used many other places to mean recite, but is primarily defined as to follow, go or walk behind, follow in way of imitation, of action etc., and is often used for animals like camels following behind each other. [10] Yet the Moon does not follow behind the sun's movement, nor does it provide its own light like the sun. It might merely seem to a naive observer to do these things.

There are many more verses where the sun and moon are paired:

A token unto them is night. We strip it of the day, and lo! they are in darkness and the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise. And for the moon We have appointed mansions till she return like an old shrivelled palm-leaf. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.

Notice also in the above verse that the sun's movement (as well as day and night) are a token, or sign, that the hearers can readily observe.

And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They all float in rounded courses.

...khalaqa (created) allayla (the night) waalnnahara (and the day) waalshshamsa (and the sun) waalqamara (and the moon) kullun (each) fee (in) falakin (a rounded course) yasbahoona (they swim)

He has made subject to you the Night and the Day; the Sun and the moon
And He hath made subject to you the Sun and the moon, both diligently pursuing their courses; and the night and the day hath he (also) made subject to you.
Among His Signs are the Night and the Day, and the Sun and the Moon. [...]

Here it is again: heavens and earth, night and day, sun and moon.

He created the heavens and the earth in true (proportions): He makes the Night overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night: He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His law): Each one follows a course for a time appointed. Is not He the Exalted in Power - He Who forgives again and again?

And again: the Qur'an explains, not only are humans created in pairs (male and female), so are the two bodies of flowing waters (one salt and one sweet), and the night and the day and the sun and the moon.

[…]1 And Allah did create you from dust; then from a sperm-drop; then He made you in pairs. And no female conceives, or lays down (her load), but with His knowledge. Nor is a man long-lived granted length of days, nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Decree (ordained). All this is easy to Allah. Nor are the two bodies of flowing water alike,- the one palatable, sweet, and pleasant to drink, and the other, salt and bitter. Yet from each (kind of water) do ye eat flesh fresh and tender, and ye extract ornaments to wear; and thou seest the ships therein that plough the waves, that ye may seek (thus) of the Bounty of Allah that ye may be grateful. He merges Night into Day, and he merges Day into Night, and he has subjected the sun and the moon (to his Law): each one runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah your Lord: to Him belongs all Dominion.

Notice how frequently the sun and the moon are mentioned together as a pair. Its clearly implied that the sun and the moon are a pair of sorts, just like (according to the Qur'an) the heavens and the earth or the night and the day. In Qur'an 36:36 and 35:11-35:13 this belief is expressly stated. The sun and the moon (along with their courses) are mentioned amongst a range of other things that are created in pairs.

The regular cycle of the sun[edit]

According to the Qur'an, the sun's cycle is repeated on a regular basis (exactly computed even) just like that of the Moon and night and day.

[…] He made the Sun and the moon subservient (to you); each one pursues its course to an appointed time; He regulates the affair, making clear the signs
Seest thou not that Allah merges night into day and he merges day into night and he has subjected the sun, and the moon each running its course for a term appointed. And Allah is aware of what you do.
The Sun and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed

This Surah reads: Alshamsu (the sun) waalqamaru (and the moon) bihusbanin.

Husban can mean a number of things: definite reckoning, appointed courses, numbering, revolving firmament, running appointed and scheduled course. In many English translations we see the word 'course' or 'celestial sphere' but note that the word 'falak' isn't mentioned here; this verse only indicates that the sun and the moon behave in a calculated / scheduled / appointed manner.

There is a reason why this is important: the sun's daily cycle and the moons monthly cycle are used for timekeeping in Islam.

This cycle is repeated every day:

A token unto them is night. We strip it of the day, and lo! they are in darkness and the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise. And for the moon We have appointed mansions till she return like an old shrivelled palm-leaf. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.

The Qur'an clearly tells us that the sun follows a daily cycle, which ends every night when the sun goes to its resting place (ِمُسْتَقَرٍّ See notes in the Primary Evidence section regarding this word). Waalshshamsu (and the sun) tajree (runs) limustaqarrin (a resting point) laha (of it). Notice how the sun's movement is repeatedly mentioned in the context of night and day.

A standard apologetic claim is that references to the sun's movement concern its 225 million year orbit around the milky way. Such a meaning would have no relevance to human timescales, nor would it be "a token" or sign for 7th century listeners, nor would it make sense in the context about the night-day cycle. Moreover, saying that it is not for the sun to overtake the moon is a very strange thing to say unless speaking from a naive human perspective where they orbit the same world, and indeed, will be one day joined together (see below).

The movement of the sun and timekeeping[edit]

In the days of Muhammad it was common practice to use the sun for timekeeping, so there is little wonder that the Qur'an claims the supposed course of the Sun is regulated / scheduled (see previous section) and a sign from Allah to keep track of the time of day (and likewise the course of the moon is a monthly calendar)

He it is that cleaves the day-break (from the dark): He makes the night for rest and tranquility and the sun and moon for the reckoning [of time])
It is He Who made the Sun to be a shining glory and the moon to be a light (of beauty), and measured out stages for her; that ye might know the number of years and the count [of time]. Nowise did Allah create this but in truth and righteousness. (Thus) doth He explain His Signs in detail, for those who have knowledge.
And We have made the night and the day two signs, then We have made the sign of the night to pass away and We have made the sign of the day manifest, so that you may seek grace from your Lord, and that you might know the numbering of years and the reckoning; and We have explained everything with distinctness.

The moon (the sign of the night) is to be used to count the years (12 lunar years make up the Islamic year) and the sun is to be used to keep track of time. The only solar movement Muslims use for timekeeping is the apparent daily course of the Sun (from east up and then down to the west). To this very day, Muslims use the (crude) lunar calender, and the waqt (prescribed time) of their daily salats (prayers) is determined entirely by the position of the Sun along it’s apparent course.

Daily salats:

  1. Salat Al Fajr – right before sun rise. (mentioned in Qur'an 17:78 Qur'an 20:130 Qur'an 24:58)
  2. Salat Al Zuhr – right after the Sun’s zenith, but before the shadow of the Sun becomes twice its length from midday. (Mentioned in Qur'an 20:130)
  3. Salat Al Asr- between zenith and sunset, when the length of a shadow of a stick is either once or twice its length. (Mentioned in Qur'an 20:130))
  4. Salat Al Maghrib – right after sunset. (Mentioned in Qur'an 17:78 Qur'an 20:130)
  5. Salat Al Isha'a – between sunset and sunrise. (Mentioned in Qur'an 20:130)

The picture is pretty clear: the apparent daily course of the sun dictates the time of each and every daily prayer and the only examples of the sun being used for timekeeping in the Qur'an employs the sun's daily movement along the sky.

The shape of the sun's course[edit]

These verses explain the shape of the sun's course. Apparently the sun goes up from east, travels high and eventually goes down to the west.

The sun rises (goes up) in the east:

But it is Allah that causes the sun to rise from the east
And when he saw the sun rising up[…]

The sun's course has a high point:

[…] and let the people assemble when the sun has risen high.

The sun goes up and down:

[…] the rising of the sun and ere the going down thereof

The sun goes down again in the west:

Establish worship at the going down of the Sun until the dark of night, and (the recital of) the Qur'an at dawn. Lo! (the recital of) the Qur'an at dawn is ever witnessed.
When he saw the moon rising in splendor, he said: "This is my Lord." But when the moon set, He said: "unless my Lord guide me, I shall surely be among those who go astray." When he saw the Sun rising in splendor [...]

Here the course of the sun is described as a sign (ayat). Note that the rising of the sun is compared (again) to the rising of the moon (the same words are used). However, the moon is in an orbit around the earth, whilst the sun is not.

Thou wouldst have seen the sun, when it rose, declining to the right from their Cave, and when it set, turning away from them to the left, while they lay in the open space in the midst of the Cave. Such are among the Signs of Allah: He whom Allah, guides is rightly guided; but he whom Allah leaves to stray.

The Qur'an clearly assumes the sun ends its daily cycle every night when the sun goes to its resting place. (ِمُسْتَقَرٍّ or mustaqarrin).[11]

A token unto them is night. We strip it of the day, and lo! they are in darkness. And the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise.

The Qur'an also describes the locations where the sun can be seen to go up and down. It can be seen by human eyes in the story of Dhul-Qarnayn (Alexander the Great):

Lo! We made him strong in the land and gave him unto every thing a road. And he followed a road. Till, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it setting in a muddy spring, and found a people thereabout. We said: O Dhu'l-Qarneyn! Either punish or show them kindness. Then he followed a road. Till, when he reached the rising-place of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had appointed no shelter therefrom.

The place where the sun goes down has a name 'Mahgreb' (from the root ghuroob, meaning "to set" or "to be hidden by going away"). Today, North-Western Africa (Morocco in particular) is denoted by this very name. Interestingly, if one stands there and looks at the ocean at sunset one could 'observe' the sun going to its hidden resting place.[12]

The Qur'an is quite clear about the course of the sun. It does not even describe a complete orbit, but merely a rounded course (falak) that has a beginning, an end, and a highest point.

The similar size and distance of the sun and moon[edit]

The Qur'an has some statements about the end of the world that are much as one would expect if the author believed the sun and moon to be of similar size and a similar distance from Earth.

And the moon darkens And the sun and the moon are joined,

The word translated "are joined" is Arabic jumi'a, a verb which means to collect together, gather together, bring together.[13] Now given that this would actually require the moon to travel 98 million miles away from Earth and into the sun, which is over 600 times wider, it is far less suitable as an apocalyptic event than if the ancient understanding of the cosmos was correct, and it is not credible that an author with accurate knowledge of the solar system would describe such an event using the words found in these verses.

Supporting Evidence[edit]

Ancient and modern-day Muslim astronomers[edit]

Muslims living in Muhammad’s day unequivocally accepted the Qur'an's geocentric cosmology. References in the Hadith of any of the ansari or others in Muhammad's environment arguing about this point with their prophet or amongst themselves are unknown. Famous Muslim astronomers (people who certainly read, and knew the Qur'an) like the Arab astronomer Ibn al-Shatir and the Persian Nasir al-Din al-Tusi used Greek (geocentric) astronomy to create complex models of our ‘universe’ (basically only our solar system, which they believed constituted the entire universe) that were geocentric just like the Qur'an.

In a televised debate aired on Iraqi Al-Fayhaa TV (October 31, 2007), Muslim Researcher on Astronomy Fadhel Al-Sa'd also declared :

The sun circles the Earth because it is smaller than the Earth, as is evident in Koranic verses. Have you ever seen how the sun moves? I have seen the sun moving. The sun makes one move every 24 hours.

What I say is based on Koranic science. He bases his arguments on the kind of science that I reject categorically -- the modern science that they teach in schools. This science is a heretic innovation that has no confirmation in the Koran. No verse in the Koran indicates that the Earth is round or that it rotates. Anything that has no indication in the Koran is false.

According to Fadhel Al-Sa'd, the moon's diameter is 1,200,000 km, while that of the sun is only 2,400,000 km.

Muslims around the time of Muhammad[edit]

In the Hadiths we read Muhammad's own words, and they clearly paint the same picture: the sun moves around the earth and goes to a resting place at night.

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) one day said: Do you know where the Sun goes? They replied: Allah and His Apostle know best. He (the Holy Prophet) observed: Verily it (the Sun) glides till it reaches its resting place under the Throne. Then it falls prostrate and remains there until it is asked: Rise up and go to the place whence you came, and it goes back and continues emerging out from its rising place and then glides till it reaches its place of rest under the Throne and falls prostrate and remains in that state until it is asked: Rise up and return to the place whence you came, and it returns and emerges out from it rising place and the it glides (in such a normal way) that the people do not discern anything (unusual in it) till it reaches its resting place under the Throne. Then it would be said to it: Rise up and emerge out from the place of your setting, and it will rise from the place of its setting. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said. Do you know when it would happen? It would happen at the time when faith will not benefit one who has not previously believed or has derived no good from the faith.
Narrated Abu Dharr: The Prophet asked me at sunset, "Do you know where the sun goes (at the time of sunset)?" I replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." He said, "It goes (i.e. travels) till it prostrates Itself underneath the Throne and takes the permission to rise again, and it is permitted and then (a time will come when) it will be about to prostrate itself but its prostration will not be accepted, and it will ask permission to go on its course but it will not be permitted, but it will be ordered to return whence it has come and so it will rise in the west. And that is the interpretation of the Statement of Allah: ‘And the sun Runs its fixed course for a term (decreed). That is The Decree of (Allah) The Exalted in Might, The All-Knowing.’"
Narrated Abu Dharr: I entered the mosque while Allah's Apostle was sitting there. When the sun had set, the Prophet said, "O Abu Dharr! Do you know where this (sun) goes?" I said, "Allah and His Apostle know best." He said, "It goes and asks permission to prostrate, and it is allowed, and (one day) it, as if being ordered to return whence it came, then it will rise from the west." Then the Prophet recited, "That: ‘And the sun runs on its fixed course (for a term decreed),"

Even though these Hadiths are all deemed 'sahih' (authentic) according to Islamic scholars, some apologists will deny them without any valid reason other than for their anti-scientific nature. Of course the Hadiths, at the very least, indicate what Muslims around the time of Muhammad (or not long after his demise) believed about the sun and how to interpret the Qur'an correctly.


A lot of details about the sun’s movement are contained within the Qur'an.

According to the Qur'an, the supposed course of the sun:

  1. is seen by 7th century listeners without knowledge of galactic orbits.
  2. is (almost always) compared to the Moon's course.
  3. is followed by the moon
  4. will on the last day be physically joined to the moon
  5. is repeated regularly.
  6. is almost always mentioned with that of the moon in the context of night and day.
  7. is to be used by the Muslims for timekeeping.
  8. has a destination. Beginning in the east, it goes up to a high point, then goes down to the west.

In addition to all these facts; great ancient, and even modern-day, Muslim astronomers agree that the Qur'an is geocentric, and the Hadiths also affirm this geocentric cosmology (so Muhammad or at least the people around him agree with it)

What else can one conclude, other than the Qur'an is geocentric? Whoever wrote the Qur'an thought that the sun orbits our planet. It is now known this is not true: the sun is not orbiting our planet and it is certainly not in a daily rounded path that looks like half a circle.

In ancient times, many people - but certainly not all - did not know any better than what they seemed to observe everyday: the sun appeared to be going around the earth through our skies. This belief could be expected from a 7th century Bedouin, but not from an omnipresent, omnipotent, omniscient creator, who should be able to produce a perfect book that doesn't require acrobatic apologetics to defend.

This page is featured in the core article, Islam and Science which serves as a starting point for anyone wishing to learn more about this topic Core part.png

See Also[edit]

  • Cosmology - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Cosmology

External Link[edit]


  1. Falak Lane's Lexicon Volume 1 page 2443
  2. 21:33, 39:40, 31:29, 35:13, and 39:5; the exception being 13:2. See also 14:33, though note that the word translated "constant in their courses" is daibayni, which is simply a verb meaning to strive, toil, labour, hold on or continue. Ref: dal-alif-ba Lane's Lexicon Volume 1 page 106
  3. "And a Sign for them is the Night: We withdraw therefrom the Day, and behold they are plunged in darkness; And the sun runs his course for a period determined for him: that is the decree of (Him), the Exalted in Might, the All-Knowing. And the Moon,- We have measured for her mansions (to traverse) till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date-stalk. It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law)." - Qur'an 36:37-40
  4. A few translations use instead, "appointed term", though in nearly all other verses where we find قرر (mustaqarrin (qaf-ra-ra) Lane's Lexicon Volume 1 page 2501) as a participle they translate it as a place of settlement or an abode or resting place.
  5. Sahih Muslim 1:297. For the Arabic of this hadith, see here
  6. There are other verses (35:13, 31:29, 39:5, 13:2) that mention the sun and moon floating/swimming (with the same verb as is translated "run" in 36:38) for a term appointed (لِأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى which does have that meaning - مُسْتَقَرٍّ in 36:38 is a different word).
  7. With a different ending indicating that the مُسْتَقَرٍّ (resting place) in 36:38 refers to the end of the world when the sun is asked to rise from its setting place (مِنْ مَغْرِبِهَا). Ref: Sahih Bukhari 9:93:520. For the Arabic see here
  8. "Have you not seen how Allah created the seven heavens one above the other, setting in them the moon as a light and the sun as a lantern?" - Qur'an 71:15-16
  9. Qur'an 2:22-29, Qur'an 35:41, Qur'an 21:104, Qur'an 17:92, and Qur'an 34:9
  10. Ta-Lam-Waw Lane's Lexicon volume 1 page 313
  11. See the notes (No. 3) in the Primary Evidence section of this article, regarding the translation of this word.
  12. For a detailed discussion of the key words in these verses, see the article Dhul-Qarnayn and the Sun Setting in a Muddy Spring
  13. Jama'a Lane's Lexicon Book 1 page 455