Revelational Circumstances of the Qur'an: Surah 5 (Al-Ma'ida)

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Revelational Circumstances of the Qur'an
Surah:
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Missing Verses

5:35:65:335:415:425:44 • 5:455:475:505:895:905:915:935:1015:106

5:3[edit]

Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swineflesh, and that which hath been dedicated unto any other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the dead through falling from a height, and that which hath been killed by (the goring of) horns, and the devoured of wild beasts, saving that which ye make lawful (by the death-stroke), and that which hath been immolated unto idols. And (forbidden is it) that ye swear by the divining arrows. This is an abomination. This day are those who disbelieve in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam. Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.


Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab
Once a Jew said to me, "O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book Which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed as a day of celebration." 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that verse?" The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion For you, completed My favor upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion." (5:3) 'Umar replied,"No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet was standing at 'Arafat (i.e. the Day of Hajj)"

5:6[edit]

O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash you faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.
Narrated Aisha

A necklace of mine was lost at Al-Baida' and we were on our way to Medina. The Prophet made his camel kneel down and dismounted and laid his head on my lap and slept. Abu Bakr came to me and hit me violently on the chest and said, "You have detained the people because of a necklace." I kept as motionless as a dead person because of the position of Allah's Apostle ; (on my lap) although Abu Bakr had hurt me (with the slap). Then the Prophet woke up and it was the time for the morning (prayer). Water was sought, but in vain; so the following Verse was revealed:--

"O you who believe! When you intend to offer prayer.." (5.6) Usaid bin Hudair said, "Allah has blessed the people for your sake, O the family of Abu Bakr. You are but a blessing for them."

5:33[edit]

The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His messenger and strive after corruption in the land will be that they will be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet on alternate sides cut off, or will be expelled out of the land. Such will be their degradation in the world, and in the Hereafter theirs will be an awful doom;
Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar
Some people raided the camels of the Prophet (peace be upon him), drove them off, and apostatised. They killed the herdsman of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) who was a believer. He (the Prophet) sent (people) in pursuit of them and they were caught. He had their hands and feet cut off, and their eyes put out. The verse regarding fighting against Allah and His Prophet (peace be upon him) was then revealed. These were the people about whom Anas ibn Malik informed al-Hajjaj when he asked him.

5:41[edit]

O Messenger! Let not them grieve thee who vie one with another in the race to disbelief, of such as say with their mouths: "We believe," but their hearts believe not, and of the Jews: listeners for the sake of falsehood, listeners on behalf of other folk who come not unto thee, changing words from their context and saying: If this be given unto you, receive it, but if this be not given unto you, then beware! He whom Allah doometh unto sin, thou (by thine efforts) wilt avail him naught against Allah. Those are they for whom the Will of Allah is that He cleanse not their hearts. Theirs in the world will be ignominy, and in the Hereafter an awful doom;
Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: There happened to pass by Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) a Jew blackened and lashed. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) called them (the Jews) and said: Is this the punishment that you find in your Book (Torah) as a prescribed punishment for adultery? They said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) called one of the scholars amongst them and said: I ask you in the name of Allah Who sent down the Torah on Moses if that is the prescribed punishment for adultery that you find in your Book. He said: No. Had you not asked me in the name of Allah, I would not have given you this information. We find stoning to death (as punishment prescribed in the Torah). But this (crime) became quite common amongst our aristocratic class. So when we caught hold of any rich person (indulging in this offence) we spared him, but when we caught hold of a helpless person we imposed the prescribed punishment upon him. We then said: Let us argree (on a punishment) which we can inflict both upon the rich and the poor. So We decided to blacken the face with coal and flog as a substitute punishment for stoning. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: O Allah, I am the first to revive Thy command when they had made it dead. He then commanded and he (the offender) was stoned to death. Allah, the Majestic and Glorious, sent down (this verse):" O Messenger, (the behaviour of) those who vie with one another in denying the truth should not grieve you..." up to" is vouchsafed unto you, accept it" (v. 41) 2176 It was said (by the Jews): Go to Muhammad; it he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging (as punishment for adultery), then accept it, but it he gives verdict for stoning, then avoid it. It was (then) that Allah, the Majestic and Great, sent down (these verses):" And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed are, indeed, deniers of the truth" (v. 44) ;" And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed-they, they indeed are the wrongdoers" (v. 45) ;" And they who do not judge in accordance with what God has revealed-they are the iniquitous (v. 47). (All these verses) were revealed in connection with the non-believers.

5:42[edit]

Listeners for the sake of falsehood! Greedy for illicit gain! If then they have recourse unto thee (Muhammad) judge between them or disclaim jurisdiction. If thou disclaimest jurisdiction, then they cannot harm thee at all. But if thou judgest, judge between them with equity. Lo! Allah loveth the equitable.
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas

Qurayzah and Nadir (were two Jewish tribes). An-Nadir were nobler than Qurayzah. When a man of Qurayzah killed a man of an-Nadir, he would be killed. But if a man of an-Nadir killed a man of Qurayzah, a hundred wasq of dates would be paid as blood-money. When Prophethood was bestowed upon the Prophet (peace be upon him), a man of an-Nadir killed a man of Qurayzah.

They said: Give him to us, we shall kill him. They replied: We have the Prophet (peace be upon him) between you and us. So they came to him. Thereupon the following verse was revealed: "If thou judge, judge in equity between them." "In equity" means life for a life.

The following verse was then revealed: "Do they seek of a judgment of (the days) ignorance?"

5:44 - 5:45[edit]

44. Lo! We did reveal the Torah, wherein is guidance and a light, by which the prophets who surrendered (unto Allah) judged the Jews, and the rabbis and the priests (judged) by such of Allah's Scripture as they were bidden to observe, and thereunto were they witnesses. So fear not mankind, but fear Me. And barter not My revelations for a little gain. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are disbelievers.
45. And We prescribed for them therein: The life for the life, and the eye for the eye, and the nose for the nose, and the ear for the ear, and the tooth for the tooth, and for wounds retaliation. But whoso forgoeth it (in the way of charity) it shall be expiation for him. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are wrong-doers.
Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: There happened to pass by Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) a Jew blackened and lashed. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) called them (the Jews) and said: Is this the punishment that you find in your Book (Torah) as a prescribed punishment for adultery? They said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) called one of the scholars amongst them and said: I ask you in the name of Allah Who sent down the Torah on Moses if that is the prescribed punishment for adultery that you find in your Book. He said: No. Had you not asked me in the name of Allah, I would not have given you this information. We find stoning to death (as punishment prescribed in the Torah). But this (crime) became quite common amongst our aristocratic class. So when we caught hold of any rich person (indulging in this offence) we spared him, but when we caught hold of a helpless person we imposed the prescribed punishment upon him. We then said: Let us argree (on a punishment) which we can inflict both upon the rich and the poor. So We decided to blacken the face with coal and flog as a substitute punishment for stoning. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: O Allah, I am the first to revive Thy command when they had made it dead. He then commanded and he (the offender) was stoned to death. Allah, the Majestic and Glorious, sent down (this verse):" O Messenger, (the behaviour of) those who vie with one another in denying the truth should not grieve you..." up to" is vouchsafed unto you, accept it" (v. 41) 2176 It was said (by the Jews): Go to Muhammad; it he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging (as punishment for adultery), then accept it, but it he gives verdict for stoning, then avoid it. It was (then) that Allah, the Majestic and Great, sent down (these verses):" And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed are, indeed, deniers of the truth" (v. 44) ;" And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed-they, they indeed are the wrongdoers" (v. 45) ;" And they who do not judge in accordance with what God has revealed-they are the iniquitous (v. 47). (All these verses) were revealed in connection with the non-believers.

5:47[edit]

Let the People of the Gospel judge by that which Allah hath revealed therein. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are evil-livers.
Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: There happened to pass by Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) a Jew blackened and lashed. Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) called them (the Jews) and said: Is this the punishment that you find in your Book (Torah) as a prescribed punishment for adultery? They said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) called one of the scholars amongst them and said: I ask you in the name of Allah Who sent down the Torah on Moses if that is the prescribed punishment for adultery that you find in your Book. He said: No. Had you not asked me in the name of Allah, I would not have given you this information. We find stoning to death (as punishment prescribed in the Torah). But this (crime) became quite common amongst our aristocratic class. So when we caught hold of any rich person (indulging in this offence) we spared him, but when we caught hold of a helpless person we imposed the prescribed punishment upon him. We then said: Let us argree (on a punishment) which we can inflict both upon the rich and the poor. So We decided to blacken the face with coal and flog as a substitute punishment for stoning. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: O Allah, I am the first to revive Thy command when they had made it dead. He then commanded and he (the offender) was stoned to death. Allah, the Majestic and Glorious, sent down (this verse):" O Messenger, (the behaviour of) those who vie with one another in denying the truth should not grieve you..." up to" is vouchsafed unto you, accept it" (v. 41) 2176 It was said (by the Jews): Go to Muhammad; it he commands you to blacken the face and award flogging (as punishment for adultery), then accept it, but it he gives verdict for stoning, then avoid it. It was (then) that Allah, the Majestic and Great, sent down (these verses):" And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed are, indeed, deniers of the truth" (v. 44) ;" And they who do not judge in accordance with what Allah has revealed-they, they indeed are the wrongdoers" (v. 45) ;" And they who do not judge in accordance with what God has revealed-they are the iniquitous (v. 47). (All these verses) were revealed in connection with the non-believers.

5:50[edit]

Is it a judgment of the time of (pagan) ignorance that they are seeking? Who is better than Allah for judgment to a people who have certainty (in their belief)?
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas

Qurayzah and Nadir (were two Jewish tribes). An-Nadir were nobler than Qurayzah. When a man of Qurayzah killed a man of an-Nadir, he would be killed. But if a man of an-Nadir killed a man of Qurayzah, a hundred wasq of dates would be paid as blood-money. When Prophethood was bestowed upon the Prophet (peace be upon him), a man of an-Nadir killed a man of Qurayzah.

They said: Give him to us, we shall kill him. They replied: We have the Prophet (peace be upon him) between you and us. So they came to him.

Thereupon the following verse was revealed: "If thou judge, judge in equity between them." "In equity" means life for a life.

The following verse was then revealed: "Do they seek of a judgment of (the days) ignorance?"

5:89[edit]

Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will take you to task for the oaths which ye swear in earnest. The expiation thereof is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that wherewith ye feed your own folk, or the clothing of them, or the liberation of a slave, and for him who findeth not (the wherewithal to do so) then a three days' fast. This is the expiation of your oaths when ye have sworn; and keep your oaths. Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His revelations in order that ye may give thanks.
Narrated 'Aisha
This Verse: "Allah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths." (5.89) was revealed about a man's state men (during his talk), "No, by Allah," and "Yes, by Allah."

5:90[edit]

O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed.
Mus'ab b. Sa'd reported on the authority of his father that many verses of the Qur'an had been revealed in connection with him. His mother Umm Sa'd had taken oath that she would never talk with him until he abandoned his faith and she neither ate nor drank and said: Allah has commanded you to treat well your parents and I am your mother and I command you to do this. She passed three days in this state until she fainted because of extreme hunger and at that time her son whose name was Umara stood up and served her drink and she began to curse Sa'd that Allah, the Exalted and Glorions, revealed these verses of the Holy Qur'an:" And We have enjoined upon a person goodness to his parents but if they contend with thee to associate (others) with Me of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not" (xxix. 8) ; Treat thein with customary good in this world" (xxxi. 15). He also reported that there fell to the lot of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) huge spoils of war and there was one sword in them. I picked that up and came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and said: Bestow this sword upon me (as my share in the spoils of war) and you know my state. Thereupon he said: Return it to the place from where you picked it up. I went back until I decided to throw it in a store but my soul repulsed me so I came back and asked him to give that sword to me. He said in a loud voice to return it to the place from where I had picked it up. It was on this occasion that this verse was revealed:" They asked about the spoils of war" (viii. 1). He further said: I once fell ill and sent a message to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him). He visited me and I said to him: Permit me to distribute (in charity) my property as much as I like. He did not agree. I said: (Permit me to distribute) half of it. He did not agree. I said: (Permit me to distribute) the third part, whereupon he kept quiet and it was after this (that the distribution of one's property in charity) to the extent of one-third was held valid. He further said: I came to a group of persons of the Ansir and Muhajirin and they said: Come, so that we may serve you wine, and it was before the use of wine had been prohibited. I went to them in a garden and there had been with them the roasted head of a camel and a small water-skin containing wine. I ate and drank along with them and there came under discussion the Ansr (Helpers) and Muhajirin (immigrants). I said: The immigrants are better than the Ansar, that a person picked up a portion of the head (of the camel and struck me with it that my nose was injured. I came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and informed him of the situation that Aliah, the Exalted and Glorious, revealed verses pertaining to wine:" Intoxicants and the games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (divining by) arrows are only an uncleanliness, the devil's work" (v. 90).

5:91[edit]

Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done?
Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab

When the prohibition of wine (was yet to be) declared, Umar said: O Allah, give us a satisfactory explanation about wine.

So the following verse of Surat al-Baqarah revealed; "They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: In them is great sin...." Umar was then called and it was recited to him.

He said: O Allah, give us a satisfactory explanation about wine.

Then the following verse of Surat an-Nisa' was revealed: "O ye who believe! approach not prayers with a mind befogged...." Thereafter the herald of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) would call when the (congregational) prayer was performed: Beware, one who is drunk should not come to prayer. Umar was again called and it was recited to him).

He said: O Allah, give us a satisfactory explanation about wine. This verse was revealed: "Will ye not then abstain?" Umar said: We abstained.
Narrated Ibn Umar
(The Verse of) prohibiting alcoholic drinks was revealed when there were in Medina five kinds of (alcoholic) drinks none of which was produced from grapes.

5:93[edit]

There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past). So be mindful of your duty (to Allah), and believe, and do good works; and again: be mindful of your duty, and believe; and once again: be mindful of your duty, and do right. Allah loveth the good.
Narrated Anas
The alcoholic drink which was spilled was Al-Fadikh. I used to offer alcoholic drinks to the people at the residence of Abu Talha. Then the order of prohibiting Alcoholic drinks was revealed, and the Prophet ordered somebody to announce that: Abu Talha said to me, "Go out and see what this voice (this announcement ) is." I went out and (on coming back) said, "This is somebody announcing that alcoholic beverages have been prohibited." Abu Talha said to me, "Go and spill it (i.e. the wine)," Then it (alcoholic drinks) was seen flowing through the streets of Medina. At that time the wine was Al-Fadikh. The people said, "Some people (Muslims) were killed (during the battle of Uhud) while wine was in their stomachs." So Allah revealed: "On those who believe and do good deeds there is no blame for what they ate (in the past)." (5.93)

5:101[edit]

O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made unto you, would trouble you; but if ye ask of them when the Qur'an is being revealed, they will be made known unto you. Allah pardoneth this, for Allah is Forgiving, Clement.
Narrated Anas
The Prophet delivered a sermon the like of which I had never heard before. He said, "If you but knew what I know then you would have laughed little and wept much." On hearing that, the companions of the Prophet covered their faces and the sound of their weeping was heard. A man said, "Who is my father?" The Prophet said, "So-and-so." So this Verse was revealed: "Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble." (5.101)

5:106[edit]

O ye who believe! Let there be witnesses between you when death draweth nigh unto one of you, at the time of bequest - two witnesses, just men from among you, or two others from another tribe, in case ye are campaigning in the land and the calamity of death befall you. Ye shall empanel them both after the prayer, and, if ye doubt, they shall be made to swear by Allah (saying): We will not take a bribe, even though it were (on behalf of) a near kinsman nor will we hide the testimony of Allah, for then indeed we should be of the sinful.
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas

A man from Banu Sahm went out with Tamim ad-Dari and Adi ibn Badda'. The man of Banu Sahm died in the land where no Muslim was present. When they returned with his inheritance, they (the heirs) did not find a silver cup with lines of gold (in his property). The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) administered on oath to them. The cup was then found (with someone) at Mecca. They said: We have bought it from Tamim and Adi.

Then two men from the heirs of the man of Banu Sahm got up and swore saying: Our witness is more reliable than their witness. They said that the cup belonged to their man.

He (Ibn Abbas) said: The following verse was revealed about them: "O ye who believe! when death approaches any of you....."


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