Revelational Circumstances of the Qur'an: Surah 3 (Al-i-Imran)
|Revelational Circumstances of the Qur'an|
Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever takes a false oath so as to take the property of a Muslim (illegally) will meet Allah while He will be angry with him." Al-Ash'ath said: By Allah, that saying concerned me. I had common land with a Jew, and the Jew later on denied my ownership, so I took him to the Prophet who asked me whether I had a proof of my ownership. When I replied in the negative, the Prophet asked the Jew to take an oath. I said, "O Allah's Apostle! He will take an oath and deprive me of my property." So, Allah revealed the following verse: "Verily! Those who purchase a little gain at the cost of Allah's covenant and their oaths." (3.77)
Abu Talha had the largest number of datepalms from amongst the Ansars of Medina. The dearest of his property to him was Bairuha garden which was facing the (Prophet's) Mosque. Allah's Apostle used to enter it and drink of its good fresh water. When the Holy Verse:-- 'By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you spend (in charity) of that which you love.' (3.92) was revealed, Abu Talha got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allah says: By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you spend of that which you love,' and the dearest of my property to me is the Bairuha garden and I want to give it in charity in Allah's Cause, seeking to be rewarded by Allah for that. So you can spend it, O Allah's Apostle, where-ever Allah instructs you. ' Allah s Apostle said, "Good! That is a perishable (or profitable) wealth" ('Abdullah is in doubt as to which word was used.) He said, "I have heard what you have said but in my opinion you'd better give it to your kith and kin." On that Abu Talha said, "I will do so, O Allah's Apostle!" Abu Talha distributed that garden among his kith and kin and cousins.
Abu Talha was the richest man in Medina amongst the Ansar and Beeruha' (garden) was the most beloved of his property, and it was situated opposite the mosque (of the Prophet.). Allah's Apostle used to enter it and drink from its sweet water. When the following Divine Verse were revealed: 'you will not attain righteousness till you spend in charity of the things you love' (3.93), Abu Talha got up in front of Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allah says in His Book, 'You will not attain righteousness unless you spend (in charity) that which you love,' and verily, the most beloved to me of my property is Beeruha (garden), so I give it in charity and hope for its reward from Allah. O Allah's Apostle! Spend it wherever you like." Allah's Apostle appreciated that and said, "That is perishable wealth, that is perishable wealth. I have heard what you have said; I suggest you to distribute it among your relatives." Abu Talha said, "I will do so, O Allah's Apostle." So, Abu Talha distributed it among his relatives and cousins. The sub-narrator (Malik) said: The Prophet said: "That is a profitable wealth," instead of "perishable wealth".
This Verse: "When two of your parties almost Decided to fall away..." was revealed in our connection, i.e. Bani Salama and Bani Haritha and I would not have liked that, if it was not revealed, for Allah said:-- But Allah was their Protector.....(3.122)
That he heard Allah's Apostle, when raising his head from bowing of the first Rak'a of the morning prayer, saying, "O Allah! Curse so-and-so and so-and-so" after he had said, "Allah hears him who sends his praises to Him. Our Lord, all the Praises are for you!" So Allah revealed:-- "Not for you (O Muhammad! )......(till the end of Verse) they are indeed wrong-doers." (3.128) Salim bin 'Abdullah said' "Allah's Apostle used to invoke evil upon Safwan bin Umaiya, Suhail bin 'Amr and Al-Harith bin Hisham. So the Verse was revealed:-- "Not for you (O Muhammad!)......(till the end of Verse) For they are indeed wrong-doers." (3.128)
Abu Bakr came riding his horse from his dwelling place in As-Sunh. He got down from it, entered the Mosque and did not speak with anybody till he came to me and went direct to the Prophet, who was covered with a marked blanket. Abu Bakr uncovered his face. He knelt down and kissed him and then started weeping and said, "My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Prophet! Allah will not combine two deaths on you. You have died the death which was written for you."Narrated Abu Salama from Ibn Abbas : Abu Bakr came out and 'Umar , was addressing the people, and Abu Bakr told him to sit down but 'Umar refused. Abu Bakr again told him to sit down but 'Umar again refused. Then Abu Bakr recited the Tashah-hud (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Apostle) and the people attended to Abu Bakr and left 'Umar. Abu Bakr said, "Amma ba'du, whoever amongst you worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, Allah is alive and will never die. Allah said: 'Muhammad is no more than an Apostle and indeed (many) Apostles have passed away before him ..(up to the) grateful.' " (3.144) (The narrator added, "By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this verse before till Abu Bakr recited it and then whoever heard it, started reciting it ")
The Prophet appointed Abdullah bin Jubair as the commander of the cavalry archers on the day of the battle of Uhud. Then they returned defeated, and that what is referred to by Allah's Statement:-- "And the Apostle (Muhammad) in your rear was calling you." (3.153)
The verse "And no Prophet could (ever) be false to his trust" was revealed about a red velvet. When it was found missing on the day of Badr, some people said; Perhaps the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) has taken it. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down "And no prophet could (ever) be false to his trust" to the end of the verse.
Regarding the Holy Verse: "Those who responded (To the call) of Allah And the Apostle (Muhammad), After being wounded, For those of them Who did good deeds And refrained from wrong, there is a great reward." (3.172)She said to 'Urwa, "O my nephew! Your father, Az-Zubair and Abu Bakr were amongst them (i.e. those who responded to the call of Allah and the Apostle on the day (of the battle of Uhud). When Allah's Apostle, suffered what he suffered on the day of Uhud and the pagans left, the Prophet was afraid that they might return. So he said, 'Who will go on their (i.e. pagans') track?' He then selected seventy men from amongst them (for this purpose)." (The sub-narrator added, "Abu Bakr and Az-Zubair were amongst them.")
* This verse number was corrected. The original hadith translation cited an incorrect verse number.