A fallacy is a component of an argument that is demonstrably flawed in its logic or form, thus rendering the argument invalid in whole, except in the case of begging the question, a false analogy and other informal fallacies.
In logical arguments, fallacies are either formal or informal. Because the validity of a deductive argument depends on its form, a formal fallacy is a deductive argument that has an invalid form, whereas an informal fallacy is any other invalid mode of reasoning whose flaw is not in the form of the argument.
Beginning with Aristotle, informal fallacies have generally been placed in one of several categories, depending on the source of the fallacy. There are fallacies of relevance, fallacies involving causal reasoning, and fallacies resulting from ambiguities. A similar approach to understanding and classifying fallacies is provided by argumentation theory.
Recognizing fallacies in actual arguments may be difficult since arguments are often structured using rhetorical patterns that obscure the logical connections between assertions. As we illustrate with various examples, fallacies may also exploit the emotions or intellectual or psychological weaknesses of the interlocutor. Having the capability of recognizing logical fallacies in arguments will hopefully reduce the likelihood of such an occurrence.
In philosophy, a formal fallacy or a logical fallacy is a pattern of reasoning which is always or at least most commonly wrong. This is due to a flaw in the structure of the argument which renders the argument invalid. A formal fallacy is contrasted with an informal fallacy, which has a valid logical form, but is false due to one or more of its premises being false.
In informal logic, an informal fallacy is an argument pattern that is always or at least most commonly wrong due to a mistake in its reasoning. In contrast to a formal fallacy, the error has to do with issues of rational inference that occur in natural language which are broader than can be represented by the symbols used in formal logic. Informal fallacies, when deductive, commonly occur in an invalid form, but by including an unstated co-premise, most deductive informal fallacies are actually valid, with the hidden co-premise false, making the argument unsound.
Types of Fallacies
- Argumentum ad baculum
- Argumentum ad populum
- Argumentum ad antiquitatem
- Argumentum Ad hominem
- False Equivalence
- No True Scotsman
Here are a few links which cover most of the common Islamic answers:
- Frequently Asked Questions, Objections and Comments
- Games Muslims Play - Brief Rebuttals to The Most Common Islamic Apologetics
- The Myths of Islam - The Truth Behind Myths Generated by Muslims and Western Apologists
- Logical Fallacies - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Logical fallacies
- A version of this page is also available in the following languages: Bulgarian. For additional languages, see the sidebar on the left.