List of Genocides, Cultural Genocides and Ethnic Cleansings under Islam
This article is a dynamic list of genocides, cultural genocides and acts of ethnic cleansing under Muslim regimes from the origin of Islam to present day.
Mutual population exchanges, massacres and war crimes involving non-Muslims and Muslims (such as Greece–Turkey, India–Pakistan or Israel–Palestine) are excluded from this list.
The Main Table
- No color: Non-Muslims targeted
- Light green: Predominantly Muslims targeted
- Orange: Both Muslims and Non-Muslims targeted
- Dark green: Mainly Shia perpetrators
|No.||Victims||Region||Country||Who was Responsible||Period||Notes|
|1||Arab polytheists||Arabian peninsula||Saudi Arabia||600s AD|
|2||Jews||Arabian peninsula||600s AD|
|3||Christians||Arabian peninsula||600s AD|
|Traditional Berber religion||North Africa||Arab Muslims||647 onwards|
|Berber Christians||Algeria||Umayyad Caliphate||647 onwards|
|Zoroastrians||Persia||Iran , Iraq||Arab and Persian Muslims||642-early 10th century|||
|Buddhists||Kabul valley, Bamiyan etc.||Afghanistan||Saffarid dynasty||9th century AD|||
|Dards||Kashmir and northern Pakistan||India , Pakistan||Arab invaders, Swat princely state||c. 700 AD and 1858-1969||Most Dards were converted to Islam|
|Turgesh Turks, Sogdians||Transoxiana||Uzbekistan , Tajikistan , Kyrgyzstan||Umayyad Caliphate||721 onwards||The culture and heritage of the Sogdians was destroyed so thoroughly that it is almost impossible to reconstruct their history. In the post-Umayyad period, Islam had firmly penetrated here.|
|Coptic Christians||Egypt||Caliph al-Mamun and Muslim mobs||c.832-837||In a clash between Spanish Muslim invaders and Egyptian Muslims, Copts supported the former. So they were punished by looting and destruction of churches. The caliph also put down their rebellion by massacring them. Many monks were killed and monasteries destroyed in later years.|
|Buddhists, proto-Iranian Hindus, Shamanists, Manichaeans||Xinjiang province||Western China||Kara Khanids||900s to 1500s||There were centuries-long attacks in this region. Buddhist monuments and artefacts were also destroyed on a large scale. The area was largely Islamized.|
|Hindus and Buddhists||Gandhara||Afghanistan||Mahmud of Ghazni||998-1030||Mass conversions and coercions.|
|Hindus||India||Various Muslim invaders and rulers||1000-1525||The Hindu population of India fell by an estimated 60 to 80 million in this period. Detailed analyses of this event and the casualties are rare.|
|Jews||Siege of Cordoba||Spain||Berber Muslims led by Umayyad ruler||1013||The inhabitants of Cordoba including Jews were massacred and looted. It is said that 2000 of them were killed.|
|Jews||Fez||Morocco||Berber soldiers||1033||In this pogrom, Muslims killed more than 6000 Jews and took away their women and belongings.
|Ismaili Shias||Sindh, in the Indian subcontinent||present-day Pakistan||Mahmud of Ghazni||1025||Mahmud defeated the Shia ruler and slaughtered many Ismailis.|
|Serer religion||Tekrur||Senegal Gambia and nearby areas||King War Jabi, his Almoravid allies and many other African Muslims||1035-1867||The Serer were under pressure to embrace Islam for centuries. An unknown number of them died in these jihads but many of them scattered.|
|Armenian Christians||Ani||Turkey||Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan||1064||Part of the Muslim conquest of Anatolia.|
|Jews||Granada||Spain||1066||Muslims crucified the Jewish vizier and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.|
|Jews||Maghreb and Andalusia||Morocco , Spain (southern), Portugal , Tunisia||Almohad Caliphate||1126-1269||Jews were expelled, killed or forced to convert to Islam.|
|Jains||India||Various Muslim invaders||1100s-1600s||The Jains are a non-violent religion. Muslims killed many Jains, destroyed many of their temples and idols, looted their treasures, and burnt books. This persecution was frequent till the 17th century.|
|Buddhists||Bihar||India||Bakhtiyar Khilji||c.1197-1203||Famous Buddhist monasteries and universities were also destroyed|
|Buddhists||Maldives||c. 1200s onwards|
|Kanuri people||Kanem empire||Chad , Nigeria , Cameroon||Dunama Dabbalemi||1203 to 1243||All Kanuris converted to Islam as a result of a jihad.|
|Mongol converts to Islam||Delhi||India||Alauddin Khilji||1298||15,000-30,000 were killed|
|Assyrian Christians||Irbil/Arbela||Iraq||Kurds and Arabs||1310||After the siege of Irbil, about 150,000 of its Christians were massacred.|
|Hindus||Kashmir||India , Pakistan||Sikandar Butshikan||1389-1413|||
|Coptic Christians||Egypt||Mamluk Sultanate||1300s-1517||Rampant discrimination and persecution under the Pact of Umar forced a majority of Copts to convert to Islam. The Mamluks destroyed most of the churches and killed an estimated 300,000 Copts over the 13th century.|
|Maronites and Greek Orthodox Christians||Coast of the Levant||Lebanon , Syria||Mamluk Sultanate||1300s||These communities were expelled and their settlements were destroyed.|
|Nestorian Christians||Iraq , Iran , Uzbekistan||Timur||1380s-1405||Timur's raids and slaughters nearly exterminated the followers of the Nestorian Church in the Near East.|
|Jews||Fez||Morocco||1465||Muslim subjects overthrew the last Marinid ruler who had appointed many Jews to high positions. This had angered many Muslims and was one of the main pretexts for them to massacre the entire Jewish community of Fez.|
|Jews||Songhai Empire||Mali||Askia Mohammad I||1492||Askia decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave. He destroyed their synagogue. Most of the Jews converted to Islam, and intolerance by Malians towards them was reported as recently as the 20th century.|
|Zoroastrians||Persia||Iran||Persian Muslims under the Safavid dynasty||1502-1747|||
|Sunnis||Persia||Iran , Iraq  Azerbaijan ||Safavid dynasty||1502-1722|
|Takkalu tribe||Persia||Shah Ismail||
|Shias||Kashmir||India||1500s to 1800s|||
|Yazidis||Baghdad, Mosul, Diyarbakir, etc.||Iraq , Syria , Turkey||Ottoman Empire||1500s to 1800s||A large Yazidi community existed in Syria, but they declined due to persecution by the Ottoman Empire. Several expeditions were launched against the Yazidis by the Ottoman governors (Wāli) of Diyarbakir, Mosul and Baghdad. The aim of these attacks was forced conversion of Yazidis to Sunni Hanafi Islam.|
|Alevis||Anatolia||Turkey||Selim I||1514||Sultan Selim, nicknamed "Selim the Grim", conducted a massacre of Alevis in 1514. The death toll is said to be 40,000.|
|Jews||Safed||present-day Israel||Retreating Mamluk army of Egypt and Arab civilians||1517||Jews were evicted from their homes, robbed and plundered, and they fled naked to the villages.|
|Greek Cypriots||Nicosia||Cyprus||Ottoman army||1570||20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted. Only women and boys who were captured to be sold as slaves were spared.|
|Portuguese||India||Shah Jahan||1632||  When negotiations with Portuguese merchants broke down, Shah Jahan massacred their men and enslaved 4000 women and children at Hughli in Bengal.|
|Sikhs||Punjab||India , Pakistan||Aurangzeb||1658 onwards||Aurangzeb's frequent persecution of the Sikhs forced their peaceful community to transform into a warrior community.|
|Jews||Yemen||Imam of Yemen (Rassid dynasty)||1679–1680||The Jews of nearly all cities and towns in Yemen were exiled to a remote desert and left to die. Their property was also confiscated.|
|Austrian civilians||Perchtoldsdorf||Austria||Ottoman Empire||1683|||
|Civilians||Delhi||India||Nadir Shah||1739||In 7 hours, Nadir Shah had 20,000 men, women and children massacred in an incident termed as Qatl-e-aam in Persian. He also seized a lot of booty.|
|Sikhs||India , Pakistan||Mughal Empire vassals and Afghan soldiers||1746-62||
|Kashmiri Pandits||Kashmir valley||India||Afghans||1764-1820s|||
|Mangalorean Catholics||Kingdom of Mysore||India||Tipu Sultan||1784-1799||This community were driven out of their homes, forced on a death march and kept as captives for 15 years. Many faced tortures, killings and forced conversions. Out of about 60,000 Catholics, at least 30,000 died en route or in captivity. Only 15,000–20,000 made it out as Christians.|
|Nair Hindus||Kingdom of Mysore||India||Tipu Sultan||Nair Hindus were subjected to forced conversions to Islam, death, and torture.  Out of 30,000 Nairs put to captivity (including women and children), only a few hundred returned alive.|
|Zoroastrians||Persia||Iran||Persian Muslims under the Qajar dynasty||1796-1925||Zoroastrians regard this period as one of their worst. They were frequently massacred, taken as captives, robbed, overtaxed, converted or married by force, and denied basic rights.|
|Mandaeans||Iran||Qajar dynasty of Persia||18th and 19th centuries.|
|Civilians (mostly Shia)||Karbala||Iraq||1801 or 1802||The Saudis killed 2,000–5,000 people in a day. They also plundered and destroyed the tomb of Husayn ibn Ali.|
|Mamluks||Cairo and other places||Egypt||Muhammad Ali of Egypt||1805-1811||About 3,000 descendants of this slave-warrior clan were massacred. It was the end of the Mamluks in Egypt.|
|Melkite Christians||Aleppo||Syria||Ottoman Empire||1817-18||Most of this community fled from Syria and those who stayed were massacred.|
|Bektashis||Turkey||Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II||1826||The Bektashi order was outlawed and 4,000 to 7,500 of them were executed. Their shrines were destroyed.|
|Assyrian Christians||Bohtan and Hakkari||Iraq , Turkey||Badr Khan and Nurallah of Hakkari||1843-47||More than 1000 Christians were killed. The Muslim armies destroyed several villages and took prisoners as war booty.|
|Jews||Throughout the Middle East and North Africa||1840-1908||Following the Damascus affair, riots and massacres of Jews occurred in Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Jerusalem (1847), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901–02), Mansura (1877), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901–07), Port Said (1903, 1908), Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891), Istanbul (1870, 1874), Buyukdere (1864), Kuzguncuk (1866), Eyub (1868), Edirne (1872), Izmir (1872, 1874).|
|Jews||Mashhad, Barfurush||Iran||1839, 1867||Mashhad witnessed forced conversions of Jews to Islam to avert a massarce. In Barfurush, Jews were massacred.|
|Hazara Shias||Afghanistan||Pashtuns||1888-90, 1892, 1893||The emir Abdul Rehman eliminated an estimated 60% of the Hazara population by massacres, enslavement, looting and pillaging of homes. Many of the survivors fled.|
|Armenians and Assyrians||Eastern Turkey||Turkey|| Ottoman Empire
Kurdish and Turkoman irregulars
|1894–1896||100,000–300,000 were killed.|
|Serbs||Kolašin and other areas||Kosovo (present day)||Albanians under the Ottoman Empire||1901||The Serbs were targeted in several massacres, rapes, looting and eviction.|
|Uighur Christians||Xinjiang||China||First East Turkestan Republic||1894-1938||Most Uighur converts to Christianity were killed, tortured and jailed. Some Hindus were murdered and Christian missionaries were expelled.|
|Ahmediyyas||Afghanistan||Kings of Afghanistan||1900-1924||Ahmediyyas, a small minority in Afghanistan, were exterminated from there by killings and forced conversions to Sunni Islam.|
|Jews||Afghanistan||1900s-1951||The Afghan Jewish community declined from about 40,000 in the early 20th Century to 5,000 in 1934. Many Jews were expelled from their homes and robbed of their property. After 1951, most Jews moved to Israel and the United States.|
|Armenians||Adana Vilayet||Turkey||Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire||1909||15,000–30,000 were killed.|
|Bulgarians||Thrace||Turkey||Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire||1913||50,000–60,000 Thracian Bulgarians were murdered, which was around 20 % of the Bulgarian population in Thrace at that time. Most of the villages with a Bulgarian population were destroyed and the survivors expelled from their places of origin.|
|Maronite Christians||Mount Lebanon||Lebanon||Ottoman Empire||1915-1918||The Ottomans deliberately cut off food supplies to the Maronites in order to feed their military.|
|Assyrian Christians||Turkey , Iran ||1914-1918||200,000 to 275,000 were killed. About half of the Assyrian population in the Ottoman Empire perished.|
|Armenians||Turkey||Ottoman Empire, Young Turks||1915-1918 or 1923||An estimated 600,000–1,800,000 Armenians were systematically massacred. The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. Considered the first modern genocide by scholars.|
|Kurds||Zilan river valley||Turkey||1930|||
|Jews||Thrace||Turkey||Turkish mobs||1934||The Thrace pogroms of Jews occurred in four cities. 1500 Jews fled the region and many soon left Turkey. Casualties unknown.|
|Alevi Kurds||Dersim||Turkey||1937-38||13,000-40,000 killed.|
|Tibetans||Qinghai Province||China||Ma Bufang and his Muslim soldiers||1932-41||The motive was ethnic cleansing of Tibetans and destruction of their culture, resulting in thousands of casualties.
|Christians||Pakistan||Pakistani Muslim civilians and terrorists||2000s-present||In recent decades, Pakistani Christians have increasingly become victims of riots, bombings, church demolitions and imprisonment on mere allegations of blasphemy.|
|Iraqi and Kurdish Jews||Iraq||1941 and 1950s-1969|| See also: |
|Harkis||Algeria||An estimated 30,000 (and possibly as many as 150,000) Muslim supporters of the French colonizers were killed.|
|Igbo people||Nigeria||Hausa and Fulani tribes (both Muslim)||1966||10,000 to 30,000 Igbos were killed. These events led to a civil war.|
|Bihari Muslims and West Pakistanis||Bangladesh||Mukti Bahini militias and other Bengali Muslims||1971-72||About 30,000-200,000 were killed, during and after the war of independence of Bangladesh.|
|East Timor||Indonesia||1975-1999||Described as a genocide|
|Chakma, Marma, Tripuri and other indigenous people||Chittagong Hill Tracts||Bangladesh||Bangladeshi army and Muslim settlers||1977-1997|||
|Dinka people||Diein||Sudan||Rizeigat Muslims||1987|||
|Kashmiri Pandits and other Hindus||Kashmir valley||India||Kashmiri Muslim mobs and Pakistani terrorists||1989-2001|
|Kurds||Iraqi Kurdistan||Iraq||Saddam Hussein||1986-89||50,000-182,000 civilians killed.|
|Isaaq clan (Muslim) of Somalis||Somalia||Siad Barre||1988-1990||50,000-100,000 killed (possibly up to 200,000)|
|Bantu people (Christians, Muslims and Traditional African religion)||Jubba Valley||Somalia||Somali militias||1991 onwards|||
|Hazara Shias||Mazar-e-Sharif, Bamiyan||Afghanistan||Taliban||1998||More than 8,000 noncombatants were reported killed after the Taliban captured the city. Even goats and donkeys were not spared.|
|Serbian Christians||Kosovo||1999-2004||Many Serbs were expelled from entire villages and churches and symbols of Serb heritage were destroyed in this period.|
|Muslim Roma, Ashkalis and purported Egyptians||Kosovo||Albanian Muslims||1999 onwards||The persecution of these communities began during the Yugoslav wars but escalated after 1999. Most of them were expelled from Kosovo and their houses were destroyed.|
|Non-Arab and Black tribes (Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa)||Darfur||Sudan||Omar al-Bashir and janjaweed militias||2003-present|
|Christians||Somalia||Al Shabab||2005 onwards||
|Christians||Palestine||Hamas, Muslim mobs, Islamic terorrist groups||2002 onwards||Muslims targeted Christians frequently in West Bank and Gaza, burning churches and grabbing properties. The Christian population fell from about 3,000 in 2007 to 1,400 in 2011. They were also the target of bomb attacks, murders and discrimination under Hamas rule.|
|Assyrian Christians||Iraq||1933-2014|| 
|Arab Christians, Levantines, Armenians, Arameans, Assyrians (Syriacs or Chaldeans) and Copts||Iraq , Syria , Libya||ISIS||2014-||At least 1000 casualties. Described as a genocide by EU.|
|Shias (including ethnic Turkmen and Shabak)||Iraq , Syria||ISIS||2014-Present|| 
|Christians and Muslims||Nigeria||Boko Haram||2014-present|||
|Coptic Christians||North Sinai||Egypt||ISIS||Feb 2017-present|||
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- Since mid-1980s, more than 20,000 Shia Muslims and hundreds of Ahmadis have been killed in Pakistan by Sunni terrorists sponsored by generals of Pakistan Army.
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